Monday, 20 July 2015

Soviet Explosive Ordnance - 76mm Projectiles (Part 1)

76mm Artillery and Tank Gun Projectiles


By far, the most extensive series of data on munition in my manual is the 76mm Projectiles with 36 separate entries.




76mm Complete Round, Fixed, Frag, UO-344A
 

This fragmentation round is fired from the 76mm regimental gun (howitzer) M1943 which is obsolete in the Soviet Army.  It is not interchangeable with standard rounds used in other 76mm weapons.

Fragmentation shells are used to destroy personnel and equipment and are designed to produce the maximum number of lethal fragments.

The KTM-1 fuze is used with the O-350A projectile in this round. 

Note: Dimensions and markings on the cartridge case in the above illustration have not been verified.  

Characteristics
Calibre: 76mm (3 in)
Weight of complete round: ?kg (? lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 6.21kg (13.66 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: ?kg (? lbs)
Type of projectile: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 0.71kg (1.562 lbs)


Packaging
 
 
The illustrated 5-round wooden box weighs approximately 58kg (128 lbs).  This ammunition may also be packed in a 6-round box weighing approximately 70kg (155 lbs) or in an 8-round box weighing approximately 94kg (207 lbs).



76mm Complete Round, Fixed, Frag, UO-353M 
 

This fragmentation round is fired from the 76mm regimental gun (howitzer) M1927; divisional guns M1902/30, M1936 (F22), M1939 (USV), M1942 (ZIS-3); tank guns M1927/32, M1938/39 (L-11), M1939 (F-32), M1940 (F-34), M1941 (ZIS-5); and self-propelled gun M1942/43 (SAU-76).  All of these weapons, with the exception of the M1942 and M1942/43,. are obsolete in the Soviet Army.

The projectile is designed to produce the maximum number of lethal fragments.  The KTM-1 fuze is used with the O-350 projectile in this round.  The cast HE filler in the projectile is cavitated at the forward end to receive the booster.

The black band on the cartridge case indicates a reduced propellent charge.  This color marking is inconsistent, however; cases with reduced propellent charge also have been found with two black bands, or without any colour band. 

Note: All complete rounds of the "353" series (that is, all rounds with the number 353 as a component of their code number) contain a reduced propellent charge.


Characteristics
Calibre: 76mm (3 in)
Weight of complete round: 8.36kg (18.39 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 6.09kg (13.4 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 0.627kg (1.38 lbs)
Type of projectile: Amatol 90/10
Weight of projectile filler: 0.814kg (1.79 lbs)

Packaging


This ammunition is packed in five-, six, or eight-round wooden packing boxes, weighing respectively about 58kg (128 lbs), 70kg (155 lbs), and 94kg (207 lbs).
  


76mm Complete Round, Fixed, Frag, UO-354AM
 


This fragmentation round is fired from the 76mm regimental gun (howitzer) M1927; divisional guns M1902/30, M1936 (F22), M1939 (USV), M1942 (ZIS-3); tank guns M1927/32, M1938/39 (L-11), M1939 (F-32), M1940 (F-34), M1941 (ZIS-5); and self-propelled gun M1942/43 (SAU-76). All of these weapons, with the exception of the M1942 and M1942/43, are obsolete in the Soviet Army.

The KTM-1 fuze is used with the O-350A cast-iron fragmentation projectile in this round. The cast TNT bursting charge in the projectile is cavitated at the forward end to receive the fuze booster.

  
Characteristics
Calibre: 76mm (3 in)
Weight of complete round: 8.99kg (19.78 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 6.2kg (13.62 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 1.145kg (2.52 lbs)
Type of projectile: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 0.71kg (1.562 lbs)

Packaging


This ammunition is packed in five-, six, or eight-round wooden packing boxes, with respective gross weights of about 58kg (128 lbs), 70kg (155 lbs), and 94kg (207 lbs).




76mm Complete Round, Fixed, Frag, UO-361D


This fragmentation round is fired from the now-obsolete 76mm anti-aircraft guns M1931, M1931/33, and M1938.

The T-5 and T-11 fuzes are used with the O-361D prjectile in this round.

The complete round UO-361, with an O-361 projectile using the T-5 or T-11 fuze, is a variant of the illustrated round.  It is fired from the same weapons and is basically the same as the UO-361D.

According to documentary evidence, however, the O-361 projectile is about 1 and 1/2 inches shorter and has less explosive filler than the O-361D.

  
Characteristics
Calibre: 76mm (3 in)
Weight of complete round: 11.5kg (25.30 lbs) -approx-
Weight of projectile, as fired: 6.61kg (14.54 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 1.8kg (3.96 lbs)
Type of projectile: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 0.486kg (1.07 lbs)

Packaging
 

This ammunition is packaged in a four-round wooden box.



76mm Complete Round, Fixed, HE, UF-352M
 

This Soviet high-explosive is fired from the 76mm mountain gun (howitzer) M1909.  It gives greater blast effect and less fragmentation than the UOF-352 Frag-HE round.

The 3GT, KT-3, and KTM-3 fuzes are used with the F-354 projectile in this round.  Supplementary boosters are used with the KT-3 and KTM-3 fuzes.

The UF-352 complete round, with an F-354 projectile using a 3GT, KT-3, or KTM-3 fuze, is a variant of the illustrated round.  It is fired in the same weapon and, except for differences in markings, is almost identical with the UF-352M in external appearance.

 Characteristics
Calibre: 76mm (3 in)
Weight of complete round: ?kg (? lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 6.1kg (13.41 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 0.36kg (0.79 lbs)
Type of projectile: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 0.82kg (1.8 lbs)
 
Packaging

 
 
This ammunition is packed in wooden packing cases containing five rounds.  When packed, the case weighs from 54.7kg to 57kg (121 lbs to 125 lbs).




76mm Complete Round, Fixed, HE, UF-353



This high-explosive round is fired from the 76mm regimental gun (howitzer) M1927; divisional guns M1902/30, M1936 (F22), M1939 (USV), M1942 (ZIS-3); tank guns M1927/32, M1938/39 (L-11), M1939 (F-32), M1940 (F-34), M1941 (ZIS-5); and self-propelled gun M1942/43 (SAU-76). All of these weapons, with the exception of the M1942 and M1942/43,. are obsolete in the Soviet Army.  The meaning of the Cyrillic letters БПК, which appear above the rotating band on the F-354 projectile, has not been established: however, documentary evidence indicates that БПК has reference to the propellent.

The KTM-3 and KT-3 fuzes are used with the F-354 projectile in this round.  Cartridge cases containing a reduced charge may have one or two black bands aroud the neck, or may be without colour bands.

The following complete rounds are variants of the illustrated round: UF-353G , with an F-354G projectile using a 3GT fuze; UF-353M, with an F-354 projectile using a KTM-3 or KT-3 fuze; and UF-353F, with an F-354F projectile using an AD or AD-2 fuze.  These variants are basically the same as the UF-353, and are fired from the same weapons. 

Note: All complete rounds of the "353" series (that is, all rounds with the number 353 as a component of their code number) contain a reduced propellent charge.
 

Characteristics
Calibre: 76mm (3 in)
Weight of complete round: 8.2kg (18.04 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 6.1kg (13.41 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 0.48kg (1.056 lbs)
Type of projectile: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 0.816kg (1.8 lbs)
Packaging

 
The illustrated 5-round wooden box weighs approximately 58kg (128 lbs) when packed. This ammunition may also be packed in a six-round box weighing approximately 70kg (155 lbs) or in an eight-round box weighing approximately 94kg (207 lbs).



76mm Complete Round, Fixed, HE, UF-354

This high-explosive round is fired from the 76mm regimental gun (howitzer) M1927; divisional guns M1902/30, M1936 (F22), M1939 (USV), M1942 (ZIS-3); tank guns M1927/32, M1938/39 (L-11), M1939 (F-32), M1940 (F-34), M1941 (ZIS-5); and self-propelled gun M1942/43 (SAU-76). All of these weapons, with the exception of the M1942 and M1942/43,. are obsolete in the Soviet Army.  It gives a greater blast effect, but less fragmentation, than the UOF-354A.

The KT-3 and KTM-1 fuzes are known to be used with the F-354 projectile in this round.  As a component of other complete rounds, however, the F-354 projectile also has been found with a KTM-3 fuze.

The following complete rounds are variants of the illustrated round: UF-354U , with an F-354U projectile employing a UGT-2 fuze; UF-354G, with an F-354G projectile and a GT-3 fuze; and UF-354F with an F-354F projectile and an AD or AD-2 fuze.  These variants are basically the same as the UF-354.  They are fired from the same weapons and, except for differences in fuzes and markings, are almost identical to the UF-354 in external appearance.


Characteristics
Calibre: 76mm (3 in)
Weight of complete round: 8.55kg (18.8 lbs)
Weight of projectile, as fired: 6.1kg (13.41 lbs)
Weight of propellant, w/o igniter: 0.9kg (1.98 lbs)
Type of projectile: TNT
Weight of projectile filler: 0.82kg (1.8 lbs)
Packaging

 

The 6-round wooden box shown above weighs about 70kg (154 lbs) when packed.  This ammunition also may be found in 5-round wooden boxes with a gross weight of 58kg (128 lbs), or in 8-round wooden boxes with a gross weight of 94kg (207 lbs). 



Next Time: 76mm Projectiles (Part 2)

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