Monday, 16 January 2017

British Explosive Ordnance - Obsolete Bombs








British Explosive Ordnance







Obsolete Bombs Introduction


The various bombs of different types included in this section have all been declared obsolete, but because of the possibility that they still may be encountered, it is deemed desirable to give complete information regarding them.

Older obsolete bombs, included only as a matter of interest, are listed in chart form at the end of the chapter.









AT 9lb, Mk I  (Obsolete)

Overall length: 14 inches
Maximum body diameter: 4 and 1/2 inches squared
Total weight: 8.5 pounds
Charge/weight ratio: 80%

Fuzing: Tail Fuze No.847
  

Color and markings:  Dark green overall,
1/2-inch red band around nose.

  
Body Construction: The body is made of thin metal, approximately rectangular in shape, having a square cross section with rounded corners.  It tapers slightly from the rear toward the nose.  The body is closed at the nose end by a front cover housing a nose cup, which is taped and cemented in place.  The nose cup of the rear bomb forms a safety device for the fuze in the front bomb of a pair, as bombs are dropped in pairs.  The rear cover is located approximately in the middle of the bomb.  The bomb incorporates a steel, cone-shaped charge.


Tail Construction: The tail is integral with the body, being only a continuation of the thin metal case.  The rear bomb of a pair has a retarder plate to pull the rear bomb free of the front one when dropped from the container.  The tail also has a safety tube of light-gauge metal with a  cardboard inner sleeve, forming a safety device for the fuze of the rear bomb of a pair.  A locating plate near the rear of the safety tube locates the tube in the tail of the bomb.

 
Suspension: These bombs are carried in the 250lb Small Bomb Container, which holds 24 bombs.  They are loaded in pairs, with the nose of the rear bomb houses in the tail of the front bomb.


Filling:
-Exploder: CE pellet housed in the bottom of the exploder container
-Filling: Nobel's explosive No.808, with shaped charge effect.


Remarks: The bomb is designed for use against tanks and armored vehicles.  It will blow a hole approximately nine inches in diameter in armor plating 2 inches thick, and is effecting at striking angles up to 45 degrees.

The 9lb AT Practice Bomb Mk I is approximately the same shape, size, and filled weight, and has the same approximate ballistic characteristics.  However, it has neither exploder nor detonator.  Its body breaks up on impact with the target to release a white filling, clearly visible from the air.








HE 20lb Mk I (Obsolete)

   
Overall length: 25 inches
Body length (w/o tail adapter): 11 inches (approx.)
Body diameter: 5.175 inches
Tail length (w/ tail adapter): 12 inches (approx.)
Tail width: 6 inches (approx.)
Total weight: 27 pounds (approx.)
Charge/weight ratio: 20% (approx.)

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.16
  

Color and markings:  Dark green overall,
1/2-inch red band and 1 inch light green band around nose.

  
Body Construction: The bomb has a steel, semi-steel or malleable-iron body, hollow and open at both ends, with the forward end threaded internally to receive the nose adapter, and the after end internally threaded to take the tail adapter.  The nose adapter has three different-sized threads, to take the detonator-holder and the exploder container from the rear,a nd the pistol from the front.  The flange of the nose adapter is externally threaded to receive a screw-on pistol cover.  The tail adapter is tapered to conform to the rearward streamlining of the body, with a central bore threaded to receive the tail rod.


Tail Construction: The bomb has a wooden tail cone, conforming to the streamlined shape of the body.  Two diametrical saw-cuts at right angles extend from the after end, over a slightly greater length than that of the tail vanes, to accommodate the four sheet-metal tail vanes, which are made in integral pairs.  The tail cone is bored axially to take the tail rod, and fits into the cavity in the tail adapter.


Suspension: A wrought-iron or mild steel suspension lug is riveted to the bomb body.


Filling:
-Exploder: 3 sold and 1 perforate CE pellets.
-Filling: 5 pounds (approx.) TNT


Remarks: This bomb was intended for attacking personnel, air strips, and road transports.







RL 112lb Mks V, VI, and VIII (Obsolete)
   
   
Overall length: 18 inches
Body diameter: 8 inches
Wall thickness: Solid body
Total weight: 10 pounds

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No. 8 Mk I, or Nose Pistol No.19 Mks I and II; Tail Pistol No.5B Mks I and II
  

Color and markings: Yellow overall,
1/2 inch red band around nose,
1 inch light green band around body.

  
Body Construction: The body of these bombs is a single streamlined casting, steel for Mks V and VII and iron for Mk VI, threaded at the nose and tail to take adapters for the central exploder tube.


Tail Construction:
Mk V: The tail of the Bomb Mk V consists of four tail fins, which fit over the body and are fastened in place with screws.  Two sets of box-type struts reinforce the tail fins.


Mks VI and VII: The tail assembly of the Bombs Mk VI and Mk VII consists of a tail cone, which slides over the after end of the bomb body and sis secured by a locknut on the exploder tube.  Four tail fins are riveted on the cone and are held in place by two sets of box-type struts.


Suspension: The Bomb Mk V has a U-shaped eye-bolt secured to the body with screws at the center of gravity.

The Bombs Mk VI and Mk VII have a U-shaped eye-bolt fastened to a suspension band around the center of gravity.


Filling:
-Exploder: TNT and CE pellets
-Filling: Amatol 80/20, or TNT
  






GP 120lb Mks I and II (Obsolete)
     

Overall length: 42.4 inches
Body length: 21.5 inches
Body diameter: 8.1 inches
Wall thickness: 0.5 inches
Tail length: 15.7 inches
Tail width: 8 inches
Total weight: 120 pounds (Amatol 80/20)
Charge/weight ratio: 25%

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.19; Tail Pistol No.21
  

Color and markings:  Yellow overall,
1/2-inch red band around nose and 1 inch light green band around body,
longitudinal green bar on body and tail indicates explodering scheme..

  
Body Construction: The body is a streamlined steel casting or forging, threaded at the nose to take the nose adapter, which holds the central exploder tube.  At the other end of the casting is a threaded base plug through which the exploder tube passes.  Welded to the end of the casting is a streamlined section of thin metal, containing no explosive, which is tapered to take the tail ring.  The exploder passes through this section also.


Tail Construction: A truncated cone fits over the rear section of body and is held to it by a locknut over the exploder tube.  Three mild-steel fins are fastened to the cone, and are reinforced by a cylindrical strut.


Suspension: The bomb uses a single suspension lug secured to the body by four screws.


Filling:
-Exploder: TNT and CE pellets
-Filling: 36.5 pounds TNT, or 30 pounds Amatol 80/20


 






GP 500lb Mks I, II and III (Obsolete)
     


Overall length: 68.7 inches
Body length: 35.7 inches
Body diameter: 13 inches
Wall thickness: 7/8 inches
Tail width: 13 inches
Total weight: 509 pounds (TNT)
Charge/weight ratio: 28%

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.19; Tail Pistol No.17 or 22
Tail No.: No.1 Mk I (Mk III bomb only)
  

Color and markings:  Yellow overall,
1/2-inch red band around nose and 1 inch light green band around body,
light green bar on body and tail indicates explodering scheme..

  
Body Construction: The body is a streamlined steel casting or forging threaded at the nose to take the nose adapter, which holds the central exploder tube.  At the opposite end is a threaded base plug through which the exploder tube passes.  Welded to the after end of the body is a streamlined cone of thin metal, containing no explosive, which is tapered to take the tail ring.  The exploder also passes through this section.


Tail Construction: The tail has a truncated cone, which fits over the rear section of the body and is held to it by a locknut over the exploder tube.  Four mild-steel fins are fastened to the cone, and are reinforced by a cylindrical strut.


Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single suspension lug secured to the body by four screws.


Filling:
-Exploder: TNT and CE pellets
-Filling: 143 pounds TNT, or 134 pounds Amatol 80/20


Remarks: The tail fins are usually painted red when time pistols are used.








HC 2000lb Mk I (Obsolete)

   
Overall length: 162 inches
Body length: 99.5 inches
Body diameter: 18.5 inches
Wall thickness: 0.19 inches
Tail length: 60 inches
Tail width: 18.6 inches
Total weight: 1842 pounds
Charge/Weight ratio: 73%

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.27, 42, or 44
Tail No.: No.32 Mk I, or No.10 Mk I or II, or Parachute Attachment
  

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
1/2-inch red band 3 and 1/2 inches from front edge of cylindrical shell,
2-inch light green band 16 inches from edge.


Body Construction: The body consists of a cylindrical steel shell with a hollow, conical nose piece welded to one end, parallel sides, and a closing plate bolted to an angle ring which is welded in position a short distance within the other end.  A radial strengthening band is welded internally at the center of gravity, and its ends are welded to a steel block.  Holes tapped through the shell and steel block receive the suspension lug screws.  Side pockets for supplementary fuzing are present near the base end, but are not used.  The shell is strengthened longitudinally by two channel beams welded to each end of a central steel block and to the shell interior.


Tail Construction: The Tail No.32 Mk I assembly consists of a cylinder of light-gauge metal with a metal tray secured in its forward end and a strengthening ring in its open rear end.  The tray has a series of equispaced bayonet dogs for attaching to the body bayonet joints welded to it.  The cylinder has a number of openings to give it stability.

The parachute attachment has a parachute 5 feet, 6 inches in diameter, attached to a metal tray having bayonet dogs for attaching it to the body.  The parachute is retained by waterproofed fabric and a retaining pin.  The retaining pin is attached to a static cord stitched on the outside of the last protective panel, and connected to the bomb carrier or aircraft.  On release the cord pulls the retaining pin and chute free, and breaks off from the plane when the chute is extended.
 

Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single suspension lug bolted to the body and an internal steel block at the center of gravity.  The screw holes are closed by transit screws until the bomb is to be used, at which time the lug is attached.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders: A central exploder tube extends from the nose exploder container.  The tube contains eight 33 and 1/4 ounce TNT exploders.  The exploder container contains a 9 ounce TNT exploder.

Filling: 1340lb Amatol 60/40 sealed at each end with an approved composition


Remarks: This bomb may be fitted with a nose attachment of light-gauge metal to retard the bomb in flight.  It consists of a cylinder fitting over the forward end of the body shell and projecting forward beyond it around the conical nose piece.  Two side fuzing pockets are usually not used, but might contain the Time Pistol No.47.






 




AS 35lb Mks I and II (Obsolete)


Overall length: 29.2 inches
Body length: 17.2 inches
Body diameter: 7 inches
Wall thickness: 0.064 inches
Tail length: 17 inches (approx.)
Tail width: 7 inches
Total weight: 35 pounds
Charge/Weight ratio: 46%

Fuzing: Nose Fuze No.866
  

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
1/2-inch red band and 1-inch light green band around body.


Body Construction: The bomb has parallel sides, with a nose adapter and a tapered rear section.  A tail adapter secures the tail to the body.  The explosive charge is cone shaped, employing the principle of Munroe shaped charge.  A cylindrical nose attachment is welded onto the nose adapter by four tack welds.  The exploder is in the rear of the body, and is initiated by a flash from the nose fuze, communicated through the supporting tube extending from the nose cavity to the exploder.


Tail Construction: The tail consists of a long hollow tube with a cylindrical strut attached to it by six fins.  The tail threads into the tail adapter, and is secured by a locking screw.  The six fins are formed by three sets of W-shaped supports welded to the tail tube.
 
Suspension: The Bomb Mk I has a single lug for suspension in aircraft.  The Mk II has no lug, as it is intended to be fired from shipboard.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploder: CE pellets
Filling: 16lb RDX/TNT 60/40.  The after end is sealed by a 1/4-inch topping of TNT.

Remarks: The Bomb Mk I was designed for use by Coastal Command and was intended to be dropped from aircraft.  The Bomb Mk II has no suspension lug, and is intended for spigot projection from ships.



 






DC 450lb Mk VII (Obsolete)


Overall length: 67.25 inches
Body length: 27.75 inches
Body diameter: 17.5 inches
Tail length: 32 inches (approx.)
Tail width: 17.5 inches
Total weight: 450 pounds
Charge/weight ratio: 64%

Fuzing: Mk X** pistol and depth adjuster
  

Color and markings: Dark green overall with circumferential red and green bands


Body Construction: The body consists of a welded cylindrical case, closed by two covers connected by a central tube called the primer tube.  This tube, housing the primer, pistol, and depth adjuster, has an internal diameter of 3.5 inches.  Three lifting eyes with rings are provided, one on the cover at the primer end, and two on the cover at the opposite end.  The cover at the primer end has two filling holes which are closed by bungs.  It may or may not have a nose attachment and tail.  The bomb is carried on aircraft with the primer end forward, except when fitted with the parachute attachment, in which case the pistol and depth adjuster are forward.


Nose Attachment: The bomb may use a hemispherical hollow nose held on by the side straps, which also secure the tail assembly.


Tail Construction: The tail, when fitted, consists of a cylindrical strut attached to a hollow tail cone by four fins.  Three brackets, equispaced around the cone, are fitted to take the ends of the straps which secure the nose and tail attachments, both of which break off on impact with water.  The bomb may have a parachute attachment on the primer end if dropped from high-speed aircraft.

 
Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single lug on a suspension band around the center of gravity.


Explosive Components:
Filling: 290lb Amatol









IB 25lb Mks I and II (Obsolete)


Overall length: 32.6 inches
Body diameter: 5.03 inches
Tail length: 13.55 inches
Total weight: 25 pounds

Fuzing: Simple impact striker
  

Color and markings: Dull red overall,
two 1/2-inch black bands separated by 1/2-inch red band painted around the nose.


Description: The Bomb Mk I consists of a cylindrical steel tube secured to a hollow, sharp-pointed nose by a nose adapter (built up externally to streamlined form by a cardboard fairing), a column of seven closed containers, termed fire-pots, accommodated in the body tube, a flanged base adapter which affords a mounting for a cap holder, a tail cone with a cylindrical tail vane secured to it by four vane supports, and a tail tube which accommodates a striker pellet, with a shear wire and creep spring, and a safety rod.

Each of the seven fire-pots consists of a cylindrical container made of magnesium alloy and formed with a central tube, which communicates, through a fire hole, with a recess in a central boss on the base of the container.  The container is closed by a magnesium alloy lid, which has a shallow central recess in its outer side.  Holes through he lid place this recess in communication with the interior of the container.  The ignition cap contains a layer of gunpowder and a layer of detonating composition.

The central tube of each of the fire-pots houses a delay charge and is surrounded by a delay charge and a priming charge for the thermite and magnesium filling, which occupies the remainder of the annular chamber in the fire-pot.  A loop of quickmatch extends into the bore of the central tube and has its two ends carried out through the slots in the tube and through two of the holes in the lid.  An ejection charge of gunpowder is retained in the recess in a central boss of each fire-pot by a paper disc, which is secured in position by shellac.

The tail cone fits over the flange of the base adapter and is held assembled to the bomb body by a tail nut, which screws onto the rear end of the tail tube against a tail adapter.  The tail adapter fits into the rear end of the tail cone.

The striker pellet has a sharp point at the forward end and is held in the safe position by a shear wire passed through holes in the striker pellet and tail tube.  The ends of the shear wire are soldered to prevent removal.  The rear end of the striker pellet receives the forward threaded end of the safety rod.  The creep spring is house in the forward end of the tail tube and bears against the cap holder and the striker pellet.  The safety rod passes through the tail tube and is screwed into the threaded bore of the striker pellet.

The Bomb Mk II has only a slight difference in the tail plate.


Parachute Attachment: Either a Parachute Attachment No.1 Mk I or a No.1 Mk II may be used with this bomb.  The Attachment No.1 Mk I consists of a small parachute housed in a container of sheet metal, consisting of a cylindrical housing plate and a cover.  It fits loosely in the cylindrical strut of the bomb tail.  The chute is 15 inches in diameter and vented at the peak.  The Attachment No.1 Mk II is similar, except that it is housed in a collapsible cardboard container between cardboard packing discs.


Striker Attachment: There are two striker attachments, the No.1 Mk I, and the No.1 Mk II.  No.1 Mk I consists of a coupling fork, snatch rod, striker rod, coupling socket, and a retaining sleeve, which houses a spring.  The No.1 Mk II is similar, except that the coupling fork is fitted with a quick-release pin.


Functioning: Whent he bomb using the Parachute and Striker Attachments No.1 Mk I is released, the cover pulls the chute out.  The chute opens and pulls the snatch rod against the action of the spring until the striker rod retaining balls escape into the annular recess in the retaining sleeve.  The striker rod then moves down against the striker pellet.  On impact, the inertia of the rod and pellet combine to shear the shear wire, overcome the creep spring, and pierce the ignition cap, igniting the blowing charge and blowing the base adapter and complete tail and parachute assembly from the body tube.  The quickmatch, which passes through the lid and into the central tube of the rearmost magnesium alloy fire-pot, is also ignited, and, in turn, the quickmatch ignites the delay charges in and around the central tube of the fire-pot.

While the central tube delay charge is burning through, the outer delay charge initiates the surrounding priming charge, which, in turn, ignites the incendiary composition around it.  Meanwhile, the central delay charge burns through and fires the ejection charge in the base of the fire-pot.  This has the effect of ejecting the activated fire-pot from the bomb and also igniting the quickmatch of the second fire-pot, etc.  Each ejected fire-pot will continue to burn for approximately 10 minutes; the magnesium alloy container and lid being consumed.

Finally, the quickmatch in the lod closing the nose of the bomb is ignited by the last ejection charge and initiates the priming charge, which, in turn, ignites the incendiary composition of the nose, and provides an additional fire source.

When used with the Parachute and Striker Attachment No.1 Mk II, the parachute is blown out of the cylindrical shroud on the tail and the chute opens, freeing the striker mechanism.  Functioning after this is the same as that with Attachments No.1 Mk I.

Suspension: The bombs may be carried in a Small Bomb Container, or from a bomb carrier by a lug on a suspension band.


Explosive Components:
Filling: 1lb Thermite, and 5lb, 4oz Magnesium







IB 250lb Mks I and II (Obsolete)



Overall length (w/o fuze): 61 inches (approx.)
Body length: 34.1 inches
Body diameter: 12 inches
Tail length: 27.2 inches
Tail width: 11.7 inches
Fuel weight: 68 pounds
Total weight: 193 pounds

Fuzing: Nose Fuze No.36 Mk II with Ejector Charge No.2 Mk I
Tail No.: No.1 Mk I
  

Color and markings: Red overall,
two 2-inch black bands separated by a 2-inch bright red band near nose.


Description: The bomb has a cylindrical body with a hemispherical nose and parallel sides.  An ejector-charge container is screwed and cemented into the nose and takes the nose fuze.  The tail consists of a tail cone and a cylindrical strut attached to the cone by four fins.  The after end of the body is closed by a tail plate, which is lightly secured to the body.


Functioning: On impact, the fuze functions and ignites the gunpowder ejection charge, which in turn ignites the incendiary filling and ejects it with the tail and tail plate.


Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single suspension lug.


Filling: The Bomb Mk I is filled with a phosphorus-rubber-benzene mixture.  The Bomb Mk II is filled with a "sticky flammable liquid."  The ejector charge consists of black powder.


Remarks: This bomb was intended primarily for attacking forested areas, and can be dropped from heights up to 8,000 feet.
















Next Time: Target Identification Bombs

Monday, 9 January 2017

British Explosive Ordnance - Practice, Infantry Training, and Miscellaneous Bombs








British Explosive Ordnance







Practice Bombs Introduction


Included in this section are five sizes of practice bombs.  These are the only ones specifically designed for that purpose, although there are currently in use several practice bombs which are merely service bombs inert-loaded with sand, water, or a chalk/lime solution.  The standard practice bombs generally emit smoke as a spotting charge to indicate bombing accuracy.

Standard practice bombs are painted white overall with two light green bands painted around the center of the tail.  Inert-loaded service bombs used as practice are painted black.  Practice bombs containing an exploder have a red band painted around the rear portion of the body.







Practice 8lb, Mk I  (Service)

  
Overall length: 16 inches
Maximum body diameter: 4 inches
Total weight: 8 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: None
  

Color and markings:  White overall,
two 1/2-inch green bands around after body.

  
Body Construction: The body consists of an asbestos cement cylinder, in the nose of which is cemented a glass flask containing about 1/2 pint of titanium tetrachloride.  The rear of the cylinder is hollow and acts as a tail unit.  A light metal suspension band is secured to the exterior of the bomb body.


Functioning: On impact, the bomb body and glass flask break up, releasing the titanium tetrachloride to form a smoke cloud.  The bomb contains no explosive.
  

Remarks: The bomb is designed for low-level training purposes against airfield targets, and is of such construction that it leaves no debris injurious to aircraft tires.






Practice 8.5lb Mks I, II, and III  (Service)

  
Overall length: 16 inches
Body length: 12 inches
Body diameter: 3 inches
Wall thickness: 0.5 inches
Tail length: 4 inches
Tail width: 3 inches
Total weight: 8.5 pounds

Fuzing: Integral simple impact arrangement with detonator burster No.28 Mk I
  

Color and markings:  White overall,
two 1/2-inch green bands 1/2 inches apart around after body.

  
Body Construction: The Bombs Mk I and Mk III have a molded plastic body, which is made in three parts: a nose section housing the striker, a center section housing the detonator burster and filling plug, and a rear section which is hollow and closed at the after end.  A perforated disc inside the rear section supports the end of the detonator burster holder.  The center part of the body is filled with lead-antimony balls, with the interstices between them, and all but a 10% air space in the rear section cone, filled with titanium tetrachloride, or gunpowder and magnesium turnings.

The striker head is retained in handling by a cotter pin, safety pin, and shear wire.  An annular groove inside the nose portion is filled with lead shot secured by wax.

The Bomb Mk II nose is fitted for an extension rod.


Tail Construction: The tail assembly consists of a tube molded into the rear section of the body, with a cylindrical strut attached to the tube by four fins.


Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single suspension lug on a band, which fits in a groove in the body, and is secured in place by a securing screw.


Filling: Main filling:
Bombs Mk I and Mk II contain titanium tetrachloride, which, when exposed to the atmosphere, forms a cloud of white smoke, marking the point of impact.  The Bomb Mk III has a flash filling consisting of gunpowder, and magnesium turnings.
  

Remarks: This bomb is designed for use against certain targets where a bomb is required to break on impact without causing damage to the target.  Because of its low terminal velocity, the bomb is only suitable for low-altitude bombing.

The Bombs Mk I and Mk II have smoke charges for day use, while the Mk III has a flash filling for night use.



Practice 10lb Mk I (Service), Mk II (Obsolete), and Mk III (Service)
   

Overall length: 18 inches
Body diameter: 8 inches
Wall thickness: Solid body
Total weight: 10 pounds

Fuzing: Integral simple impact arrangement with detonator burster No.28 Mk I
  

Color and markings:  White overall,
two light green bands 1/2 inches wide around tail cone.

  
Body Construction: The bomb has a solid cast-iron nose with an axial bore housing the striker head and rod, with a guide bush threaded into the rear cavity, and integral rear threads to take the central plug.  The striker is retained by a cotter pin (removed when loaded on aircraft), safety pin, and shear wire extending through the striker rod and guide bush.  The central plug houses the central burster tube.


Tail Construction: The tail cone is closed at the rear by a conical tail plug, and at the front end by the central plug to which it is attached.  The central tube extends through the tail cone to the tail plug, and holds the detonator burster.  A tapped hole, fitted with a plug, is provided in the central plug for filling.  The tail tube, with four fins carrying a cylindrical strut, projects from the tail plug.  Its rear end is closed by a cap.


Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single eyebolt, which screws into the bomb body opposite the cavity for suspension from a Light Series bomb carrier.


Filling:
-Smoke filling: Mk I: 1lb Titanium Tetrachloride, which forms a white cloud on exposure to atmosphere.
-Flash Filling: Mk III: 1lb mixture of gunpowder and magnesium turnings, which causes a brilliant white flash on detonation.
 

Remarks: The Bomb Mk I with its smoke filling is used for daytime practice operations.  The Bomb Mk III with its flash filling is used at night.  These bombs, because of the solid iron nose, should not be used against lightly armored targets.

Mk II had a plastic tail, but was not 'satisfactory'. so all were scrapped.


 



Practice 11.5lb Mk I (Service), and Mk II (Obsolete)
    

Overall length: 18 inches
Body diameter: 3 inches
Tail width: 3 inches
Total weight: 11.5 pounds

Fuzing: Integral simple impact arrangement with detonator burster No.28 Mk I

Color and markings:  White overall,
two 1/2-inch light green bands 1/2-inch apart around after body.

  
Description: The bomb consists of a nose casting, fitted with a striker assembly and a tail cone which constitutes a container for the filling, and is fitted with a central tube for a detonator burster.  The nose casting is made of iron, internally threaded at the rear to receive the spigot portion of a central plug which closes the forward end of the tail cone.  The interior of the nose is filled with lead, and has a clearance hole for the striker rod.  The striker is secured by a cotter pin (removed when loaded), a safety pin spring-loaded outward, and a shear wire through the guide brush.


Tail Construction: The sheet-metal tail cone, constituting the container for the filling, is closed at the rear by a conical steel tail plug and at the forward end by a central plug which screws into the rear of the nose casting.  A tapped hole is provided in the central plug for filling purposes.  Secured to the tail plug is a tail tube having four fins, which carry a cylindrical strut.  The tail tube is closed at the rear by a cap.


Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single eyebolt, which threads into the bomb case.
  

Filling:
-Smoke filling: Mk I: 1lb Titanium Tetrachloride, which produces white smoke when the detonator burster breaks open the tail cone and exposes it to the atmosphere.
-Flash Filling: Mk III: 1lb mixture of gunpowder and magnesium turnings, producing a brilliant white flash on impact.


Remarks: The Bomb Mk I with smoke filling is used for daytime practice.  The flash-filled Mk I is used at night.

The Bomb Mk II is made in the US of bakelite, but have now been scrapped.








Practice 25lb Mks I and III (Obsolete), and Mks IV and V (Service)
    

Overall length: 22 inches
Body diameter: 4 inches
Total weight: 25 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: Integral simple impact arrangement with detonator burster No.28 Mk I

Color and markings:  White overall,
Mk I has two 1/2-inch green bands on after body,
Mk III has two 1/2-inch black bands on after body, and one red band on nose.

  
Description: This bomb consists of a solid, cast-iron nose section bored centrally to house a striker head, to which are attached a long striker rod and striker.  A striker guide bush is threaded into the after end of the central bore.  A shear wire through the guide bush and the striker prevents the striker from contact with the detonator burster in the unarmed position.  During transit and normal handling, the striker also is retained by a split pin and a spring-loaded safety pin.  The split pin is removed when the bomb is loaded aboard the plane, and the safety pin is ejected when the bomb is released.


Tail Construction: The tail consists of a long tail cone, closed at the wider end by a central plug.  A central tube for the detonator burster passes through the tail cone.  Located in the central plug, slightly off-centre, is a filling pug through which the smoke or flash filling is inserted.  As in most British practice bombs, the filling is contained in what is actually a part of the tail portion of the bomb.  A tail tube is attached to the after end of the tail cone and supports a cylindrical shroud and four fins.  The central plug is threaded externally and screws into the after end of the cast iron nose section of the bomb.


Suspension: A single U-shaped suspension lug is provided to suspend this bomb.
  

Filling:
-Smoke filling: Mk I and Mk IV - Titanium Tetrachloride
-Flash Filling: Mk III and Mk V - Magnesium shavings and gunpowder, or calcium silicide and gunpowder.


Remarks: The smoke-filled bombs are used for daylight operations; the flash-filled at night.  Because of their solid cast-iron noses, these bombs should not be used against lightly armored targets.

The Bombs Mk I and Mk III are identical, except for the fillings.  The Mk IV, which replaces the Mk I, is similar to it in construction, but differs in the following respects:  The safety plunger and transit safety pin have been increased in diameter.  The plunger is retained by a flexible steel safety wire permanently attached to a safety collar which is threaded internally to accept the transit safety pin.  The transit safety pin is screwed into the safety collar, thus retaining the assembly firmly until the bomb is on the carrier.

The Bomb Mk V, which replaces the Mk III, is mechanically identical to the Mk IV, but differs in the filling.





  


Infantry Training Bombs Introduction


These bombs, of which there are two sizes, are used to train infantry units under simulated combat conditions.  The bomb casing is splinter-less, thus reducing the possibility of training injuries, but the noise and flash produced are comparable to those of the explosions of a medium-sized bomb. 

The bombs are fuzed with a pistol/detonator combination.  The 6lb bomb takes a Nose Pistol No.34, while the 60lb bomb takes a Nose Pistol No.42.

The bomb bodies are constructed of rolled pressed paper, and are closed by a pressed-paper head.




IT 6lb Mk I (Service)




Overall length: 20 inches
Body length: 20 inches
Body diameter: 3.8 inches
Total weight: 6 pounds (approx.)
Charge/Weight ratio: 33%

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.34
  

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
1/2-inch red band 1 inch from nose,
1-inch light green band 4 inches from the nose.


Body Construction: The body consists of a rolled-paper cylinder shellacked internally and externally.  A the nose end an adapter is attached to a chamfered cardboard washer, and threaded internally to receive the pistol.  The main filling is held in the body between a paper cup amidships and two felt washers at the nose, which position the exploder.  The paper cup is supported by a cardboard washer, which is in turn supported by a split collar secured to the body by four rivets.


Tail Construction: No separate tail unit is used.  The empty after portion of the body serves as a tail.
 
Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a suspension lug on a band approximately six inches from the nose.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders: 3 CE pellets, two of which are perforated

Filling: 2lb of CE TNT 30/70, or desensitized Pentolite Grade I


Remarks: This bomb is used to provide realistic bombing attacks on infantry undergoing training.  The bomb is splinterless, but the nose and flash are comparable to those of a medium-sized bomb used for dive bombing operations.







IT 60lb (Service)
  



Overall length: 36 inches (w/o fuze extension rod)
Body diameter: 10.6 inches
Total weight: 60 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.42
  

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
1/2-inch red band and 1-inch light green band around forward part of body.


Body Construction: The body and tail unit are in one piece, and are manufactured of rolled and pressed paper.  The rolled-paper charge container, containing pentolite, rests on a felt washer seated on a diaphragm in the body.  The head of the charge container is closed by a rolled-paper head which is pinned, shellacked, and taped in position.  The head is recessed to house the pistol adapter.  A 6-inch extension rod is fitted to the Nose Pistol No.42, by means of a spring washer, after the arming vane cap has been removed.


Suspension: The bomb is suspended by a single suspension lug approximately 10 inches from nose of bomb, which is secured to the bomb body by two bolts.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploder: 3 CE pellets


Filling: Pentolite

Remarks: This bomb is designed to be used in training operations of ground personnel, simulating realistic bombing attacks.



 





Miscellaneous Bombs Introduction


This chapter covers two bombs which do not fall within the regular classification system.  One bomb is the "Nickle" Leaflet bomb, which is a US Army M26 flare modified to carry propaganda leaflets.  The other bomb is the Type H, A.D. Apparatus, which is designed to provide aircraft with a defense against fixed gun fighter planes by laying a parachute-supported aerial mine in their path.  It is similar in principle of operation to several of the rocket-propelled A.D. apparatus.





"Nickle" Leaflet Bomb No.2 Mks I and II (Service)


Overall length: 47 inches
Body diameter: 8 inches
Total weight: 64 pounds
Filling: Propaganda leaflets

Fuzing: Nose Fuze No.860 Mk II
  

Color and markings: Grey overall; white stencilling


Body Construction: This bomb is an adaptation of a US Army Flare M26, whose purpose is to scatter large quantities of propaganda leaflets over enemy occupied territory.

The bomb consists of a light sheet-steel body, closed at the front end by a plastic transit plug, and at the after end by a light sheet-steel lid.  When the bomb is filled and ready for use, this lid is held in place by four soft steel tabs, which are welded at one end to the bomb body and have their free ends bent over the lid.  Four tail fins are secured to the after end of the bomb casing.

Inside the body is a wooden frame consisting of a block, which fits snuggly in the nose of the bomb but does not completely fill it, and three equispaced battens, each of which is secured at one end to the block.  These battens extend the full length of the bomb body between the block and the lids..  The leaflets are contained in the wooden frame between the battens.  The outer end of the block is recessed to locate an ejection charge containing 400 grains of G.12 gunpowder held in a muslin bag.

Since the bomb is an American weapon, it must be somewhat modified for British use.  A special brass adapter is threaded into the nose fuze pocket.  The adapter is internally threaded to receive the larger Fuze No.860 Mk II.  In the base of the adapter is located a charge of G.12 gunpowder, sealed at either end by a waterproof disc.

 
Suspension: The Bomb Mk I is designed only for aircraft having the American-type bomb stowage.  It is fitted with two American type lugs attached to suspension bands around the bomb body.  The Bomb Mk II is designed for suspension only in a Universal-type bomb carrier.  The bomb is fitted with both British- and American-type suspension lugs, but the American lugs have been moved out of position to fit beneath the standard crutching forks of the Universal-type carrier, and act as strengthening bands for the light-gauge steel body.


Functioning: When the fuzed bomb is released from the plane, it falls freely until the fuze functions, and the gunpowder in the adapter is initiated.  The flash from the gunpowder ignites the ejection charge, and the pressure from the explosion of the ejection charge forces the wooden frame containing the leaflets out of the after end of the bomb body.  The lid is thrown clear and the contents ejected from the tail.  After the ejection, the wooden frame falls end-over-end, and the leaflets fall out of the frame and scatter over the target.




Type H, A.D. Apparatus Mk II (Service)

 

Description: The apparatus consists of a housing canister, support parachute, bomb, steel cable, and towing parachute.

The cylindrical housing canister is a metal tube, the open end of which is closed by a lid.  A hinged metal flap is attached to the lid to insure its release when the apparatus is dropped.  A lid-retaining assembly holds the lid and its flap in place until the bomb is dropped.

The support parachute's shroud lines are tied to an attachment ring which is connected to the double snatch link of the bomb fuze by circlips.



The discus-shaped bomb has a central fuze hole, and a rolled edge to facilitate penetration.  The fuze is secured in place by a nut.  The bomb is filled with CE/TNT.

The fuze incorporates an all-ways acting striker mechanism, a double snatch link, and a CE filled magazine, which is screwed into the base of the fuze and closed by a plug.  This plug has an eye to which the cable is attached.  The fuze body houses a striker, creep spring, and shutter.  When the detonator in the shutter is held out of line with the striker by the striker point engaging a hole in the shutter, the fuze is unarmed.  If the striker point is withdrawn from  this hole, the shutter is moved into place by its spring and held in alignment by a spring-loaded locking pawl.  The striker is retained in the shutter hole against the pressure of its creep spring by a safety plunger, which is retained in position in the actuating rod by a headed rod.  A shear wire and the upper balls of the snatch link connect the headed rod and the actuating rod.  The flanged head of the actuating rod is housed in the fuze body.

The double snatch link consists of a body housing the actuating rod, which carries an upper and lower set of balls, a washer, sleeve, and compressed spring.  The upper balls bear on the washer, which presses against the upper end of the spring, and the lower set of balls bear against the under side of the flanged end of the sleeve.  The parachute attachment ring is joined to the snatch link body by two circlips. 

The support parachute, which is packed and held together with rubber bands so it will open only on sharp impact, is attached to the fuze eye by a one hundred foot cable.



Functioning: When the apparatus is released from the plane, the lid is blown off and, acting as a pilot chute, withdraws the support parachute, followed by the bomb, cable, and towing parachute.  The canister falls away and the cable assumes a vertical position.

The opening of the support parachute imparts a jerk to the double snatch link, which then releases the lower set of balls.  When the cable is completely unwound, the upper set of balls is ejected and the juncture of the fuze to the support parachute is transferred to the shear wire.

When the pursuing enemy plane collides with the cable, another jerk is transmitted to the bomb and support parachute.  The ends of the shear wire are cut by the snatch link washer, which then engages the headed rod, and again cuts the shear wire to release the safety rod and arm the fuze.  The support parachute and snatch link are then freed from the assemblage.  The shock of impact also opens the towing parachute, which prevents the cable from slipping over and away from the plane.  The bomb is whipped against the plane, and its hard edges penetrate the skin.  Penetration causes deflection of the actuating rod, which forces the striker into the detonator and explodes the bomb.


Next Time: Obsolete Bombs

Monday, 2 January 2017

British Explosive Ordnance - Incendiary, Smoke, and Light-Case (Chemical) Bombs








British Explosive Ordnance







Incendiary Bombs Introduction





Incendiary bombs of many various types, ranging in weight from 4 to 250 pounds, are at present in service use for operations against different types of targets.  The construction and filling of these bombs differ with the individual types, and no general description can be given here to cover the complete range.

Some bombs, such as the 4 pound series, have bodies composed mainly of incendiary material, such as magnesium alloy, and are filled with solid incendiary compositions.  Other bombs, such as the 30 pound IB, have steel tubular bodies and are liquid filled with a rubber/benzole solution, or may be partially filled with cast white phosphorus.  Liquid-filled bombs are provided with an ejection charge.  The obsolete 25 pound bomb has a faired steel tubular body containing incendiary firepots which are ejected successively by small gunpowder charges.

A small percentage of 4 pound incendiary bombs contain an explosive charge, the object of which is to render dangerous approach to the burning bombs, because of the risk of flying splinters.  Attempts to extinguish these and standard non-explosive bombs, which are dropped simultaneously, are thereby discouraged.  If the explosive charge is gunpowder, the bomb is distinguished by the letter "E".  A tetryl (CE) explosive charge is indicated by the letter "X".

These bombs are either painted a dull red overall, or have the nose end painted red for several inches.  Most of them have two black bands separated by a bright red band around the nose end.  Though formerly carried in the 250lb Small Bomb Container, Cluster Projectiles (amiable clusters) are replacing the SBC as the favored method of carrying.









IB 4lb Mks I, IE, II, IIE, III, and IIIE, and 4lb "X" with 2- and 4-minute delays, Mk I  (Obsolescent)


Overall length: 21.4 inches
Width across flats: 1.67 inches (hexagonal in shape)
Total weight: 4 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: Integral simple impact striker
  

Color and markings
Mks I-III: Dull red nose, with two 1/2-inch black bands separated by 1/2-inch bright red band around nose.

Mks IE-IIIE: Bright red tail base and addition 1/2-inch bright red band 1/2-inch abaft dull red nose.

  
Body Construction: The Bomb Mk III consists of a hollow, magnesium-alloy body, at one end of which is a cast iron or steel nose: the body being cast onto the nose during manufacturing.  A magnesium-alloy tail plug, which may be of solid or open construction, is screwed into the other end of the body.  Fixed to the tail plug by two drive-screws is a tin-plate tail closed by a tail cap.

The tail plug houses a striker, creep spring, ferrule having four tabs, and a brass cap holder containing a 1.7 grain detonator.  When the bomb is packed in its case, movement of the striker towards the detonator is prevented by a spring-loaded safety plunger housed in a sleeve fitted into the tail plug.  Two vent holes, plugged by cork inserts, are provided in the body to communicate with the space between the cap holder and the filling of the bomb.  A strip of primed cambric is located in this space.  The Mk IIIE is identical to the Mk III, except for a black powder exploder charge, just abaft the nose plug in the body cavity, which replaces a small quantity of the thermite filler.


Functioning: When the bomb is released, the safety plunger springs out.  On impact, the striker overcomes the resistance of the creep spring, bends the tabs on the striker support (brass cross), and strikes and fires the detonator.  The products of combustion from the detonator blow the cork inserts out of the vent holes.  The flash from the detonator is conveyed by the primed cambric strip to the priming paste (gunpowder-shellac paste) on the inside of the washer, which ignites the pressed priming composition and in turn the thermite pellets.  The magnesium-alloy body starts to melt about 25 seconds after the bomb is ignited, and burns for about 10 minutes.  In the Bomb Mk IIIE, after 1 and 1/2 to 4 minutes, the powder in the burster is ignited and explodes.


Suspension: The bombs are carried in the Small Bomb Container, or in a Cluster Projectile.


Filling: The bombs are filled with thermite incendiary pellets and the priming pellets which ignite them.  The incendiary material from which the bodies are manufactured, a magnesium alloy, also contributes to the incendiary effect.  The "E" bombs have an added black powder burster charge, while the "X" bombs have a CE burster charge.


Remarks: The IB 4lb Mks II and IIE are similar to the Mk III and Mk IIIE, but have the following differences.  The bomb bodies have a smaller bored, and the bomb bodies have four cork-plugged vent holes.  The tail plugs and cap holders are of solid magnesium alloy, and the noses are of steel.

The 4lb Bombs Mk I and IE are similar to the Mks II and IIE respectively, but have only a 1.62 grain detonator and are 21.4 inches long.

The 4lb X, with 2- and 4-minute delays, Mk I is similar in construction to the Mk III, except that a CE exploder is contained in the steel nose plug; this exploder being initiated after delay of either two or four minutes.  The letter "X" is stamped on the outside followed by a number "2" or "4" indicating which delay is incorporated in the bomb.  The marking bands are the same as on the Mk IIIE, except that the red band between the two black bands is 1 inch wide instead of 1/2 inch, and the base of the tail is not painted red.







IB 4lb Mks IV, IVE, V, VE, and 4lb "X" with 2- and 4-minute delays, Mk II  (Service)


Overall length: 21.4 inches
Width across flats: 1.67 inches (hexagonal in shape)
Total weight: 4 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: Integral simple impact striker
  

Color and markings: End face of nose, and body abaft nose for 2 inches painted bright red; Mk IVE has 1/2-inch bright red band 1/2-inch abaft bright red nose coloring.

  
Body Construction: The Bomb Mk IV is hexagonal in shape, having a hollow magnesium-alloy body, and a cast iron nose, with the body cast to the nose in manufacture.  A tin-plate tail, closed by a tail cover, is secured to the other end of the body by three drive-screws, which also hold a steel striker housing in position in the body.

At the tail end, the body is counter-bored to accommodate an igniting mechanism consisting of a striker, located in the striker housing, and a steel plate seated at the bottom of the counter-bore and containing a 1.7 grain detonator.  One end of the striker is pointed, and the other end projects through a hole in the striker housing.  The edge of this hole is chamfered to permit a thin brass cross, secured to the striker, to be bent and pulled through the hole when the bomb functions.  This cross forms a striker support during transit and storage.  Movement of the striker towards the detonator is, when the bomb is packed in its case, prevented by a spring-loaded safety plunger housed in a sleeve.  Two vent holes, plugged by cork inserts, are provided in the tail end of the body and communicate with the space between the igniter mechanism and the bomb main filling.  A strip of primed cambric is located in this space.  The Mk IVE is identical to the Mark IV except for a black powder burster charge just abaft the nose plug in the body cavity, which replaces a small quantity of the thermite filler.


Functioning: When the bomb is released from the container, the safety plunger springs out, and, on impact with the target, the striker moves down, breaking free from the brass cross striker support and firing the detonator.  The flash from the detonator ignites the primed cambric strip and the priming paste (gunpowder-shellac paste), and the products of combustion blow the cork inserts out of the ventholes.  The paste ignited the pressed priming composition which, in turn, ignites the thermite pellets.  The magnesium-alloy body starts to melt about 25 seconds after the bomb is ignited, and burns for about 10 minutes.  In the Bomb Mk IVE, after 1 and 1/2 to 4 minutes, the gunpowder in the burster is ignited and explodes.


Suspension: These incendiaries are carried in the Small Bomb Container, or in a Cluster Projectile.

Filling: The bombs are filled with thermite incendiary pellets and the priming pellets which ignite them.  The incendiary material from which the bodies are manufactured, a magnesium alloy, also contributes to the incendiary effect.  The "E" bombs have an added black powder burster charge, while the "X" bombs have a CE burster charge.


Remarks: The IB 4lb Mks V and VE are similar to the Mk IV and Mk IVE, except for the following differences.  The bomb is initiated by a cap and anvil being struck by the striker, the striker having a blunt point.  The cap is supported by an aluminum plate, and the striker housing is made of aluminum.  A different kind of pressed priming composition is used, which is more violent than the priming compositions used in the Bomb Mk IV, and causes some of the magnesium alloy to scatter when the bombs are ignited.  This bomb is actually the US AN-M50.

The 4lb X, with 2- and 4-minute delays, Mk II is similar in construction to the Mk IV, except that a CE exploder is contained in the steel nose; this exploder being initiated after delay of either two or four minutes.  The nose is painted dull red, for 3 and 1/2 inches, with two 1/2-inch black bands separated by a 1-inch bright red band painted on the nose.  A second bright red band, 1/2-inch wide and 1/2 inches abaft the dull red coloring, indicates that the incendiary is of the explosive type.

No "E" marks are now produced.  The small black powder charge was not lethal, but served only as a deterrent.







IB 30lb Mks I, II, and IIM (Obsolete), and III, IIIM, IV, and IVM (Service)
   


Overall length: 32.7 inches

Body length: 18 inches

Body diameter: 5 inches
 Wall thickness: 0.1 inches
 Tail diameter: 4.7 inches
Tail length: 14.2 inches
Total weight: 25 pounds

Fuzing:
Mk I: Nose Fuze No.38
Mks II-IV: Nose Fuze No.846

Tail No: No.40 Mk I

Color and markings: All marks dull red overall;
Mk I: One bright red band around nose
Mks II-III: Two bright red bands, one around the nose and one around the rear of the body.
   
Description: The bomb consists of a cylindrical body, with a hemispherical nose at one end and a tail at the other: the cylindrical tail strut being connected by four equi-spaced fins to the rear end of the tail cone.

The cylindrical body is made from welded tube, the forward end of which is reduced slightly to fit into the rim of the hemispherical steel-plate nose to which it is welded.  The nose is pierced centrally and has a burster container welded into it and closed by a screwed plug, the outer surface of which conforms with the shape of the bomb nose.  A flanged tail plate is welded in the rear end of the body, and has a hollow spigot through which the bomb is charged in the center.

The spigot is closed by a screwed plug, and is threaded externally for the attachment of the tail.  Riveted in the forward end of the tail cone is a diaphragm plate having a threaded boss, which screws onto the tail plate spigot to secure the tail to the bomb body.  A 10 percent air space is left in the body when it is filled.  A 3-inch wide cylindrical strut is attached to the rear of the tail cone by four fins spot welded to both strut and cone.  The tail cone is closed by an end cap.

Functioning: On impact, the firing of the gunpowder in the magazine of the fuze disrupts the bomb body along the weld, and scatters the filling over a considerable area to produce a large number of fires.


Suspension: The bombs are carried in a Small Bomb Container, or suspended from a bomb carrier by a lug on a suspension band. SBC 250 will carry eight bombs.
  

Filling: One pound white phosphorus, and seven pounds rubber-benzole or Perspex-benzole solution.


Remarks: The 30lb Bomb Mk I is similar to the Mk IV except for the following differences.  The burster container is screwed and welded into a flat nose plug, which is welded into the end of the body, and a hemispherical nose fairing fits onto the nose plug.  The bomb employs the Nose Fuze No.38, and is filled with 1.5lb of white phosphorus cast in the nose end of the body and approximately 6lb of a 5 percent solution of rubber in benzole.

The 30lb Bomb Mk II is similar to the Mk IV, except that the body is made from drawn tube instead of being a welded tube; so the bomb functions by tail ejection of the filling; the tail plate and tail being blown off by the firing of the magazine charge in the fuze.  The weight of white phosphorus case in the nose is 1.5 pounds.

The Mk III is similar to the Mk IV, except that the body is of heavier gauge metal.

The Mk IIIM is similar to the Mk III, except that the body has two external pads to locate a suspension band with a lug, which may or may not be used.

The Mk IVM differs from the Mk IV only in that it has a suspension band with a lug.
 






IB 30lb Type J Mk I (Service)
    

Overall length: 21 inches
Body diameter: 5.5 inches
Total weight: 31 pounds
 Wt. Thermite: 1 pound
Burning time: 1 minute (approx.)

Fuzing: Integral simple impact striker.

Tail No: No.36 Mk I

Color and markings: Dull red overall,
two 1-inch bright red bands around body,
stencilled in black on one band are letters "CTF" and on other "OCC".

  
Description: The bomb consists of a cylindrical steel body with a dished steel nose plate having a central spigot welded on, a steel ring welded to the nose plate, and a wooden nose covered by a thin metal cap and secured by screws to the ring.  A tail plate is welded, near the other end of the body, and a steel central tube, projecting through the tail plate, is welded to the tail plate and the spigot on the nose plate.  A magnesium-alloy striker is screwed to the central tube and retains a detonator holder in position.  The striker is supported by a two-armed brass cross which engages the top of the housing.  A spring-loaded safety plunger, contained in a sleeve, projects into the path of the striker.  The safety plunger is held in position by a retaining sleeve, which is secured to the parasheet container.

An automatic valve is fitted to the tail plate and has an auto-valve body screwed into a socket welded into the tail plate.  A tube extension, screwed into the inner end of the auto-valve body, holds a flexible tube, which extends to within three inches of the bottom of the bomb.  A jet having its outlet hole pointing vertically out of the tail is screwed into the side of the auto-valve body.  The valve chamber houses a spring-loaded piston having a rubber sealing disk at its inner end, which normally seals the central hole in the valve body.

The parasheet is housed in a container held in the tail end of the bomb body by six retaining screws, and its rigging lines are anchored to the container.  The container is closed by a loose metal cover held in position by the end plates of the cluster projectile.  A safety pin retaining sleeve, secured to the cover, is fitted into a central guide tube in the parasheet container, and houses a spring retainer in which is a compressed spring.


Functioning: As the bomb falls free of the container, the spring in the spring retainer of the parasheet container forces the cover away and releases the safety plunger, thus arming the bomb.  The cover is blown aft and withdraws the parasheet.  When the parasheet is fully withdrawn, the drag on the cover breaks the linen threads, so that the cover falls away.

On impact, the striker moves forward, bending the arms of the brass cross, and fires the detonator.  The flash from the detonator passes through the paper disk covering the hole in the cellophane washer and ignites the primings in the central tube.  The primings ignite the thermite, and this heats the interior of the bomb, thus raising the internal pressure.  The magnesium-alloy striker housing burns away to affording additional venting to the filling in the central tube.  When the pressure has risen to about 300 psi (pounds per square inch), the piston in the automatic valve is raised and the methane and petol solution passes through the flexible tube, into the valve chamber, through the outlet hole in the jet, and through the hole in the bottom of the parasheet container.  As it passes out of the jet, the liquid is ignited by the flame issuing from the vent holes in the striker housing as a result of the burning of the thermite.

Because of the lead weight, the free end of the flexible tube always to the lower side of the bomb as it comes to rest, so that almost all of the liquid charging passes out of the bomb through the jet.  It emits a flame 15 feet high and 2 feet wide.


Suspension: Carried in batches of 14 in Cluster Projectiles, 500lb, No.4 Mk I.
  

Filling: The main filling consists of a solution of methane in 1.3 gallons of petrol.  The bomb is filled under pressure, so that the normal filled pressure inside the bomb is from 90 to 110 psi.





IB 45lb Mk I (Service)
    


Overall length: 18.3 inches
Width: 10 inches by 9.75 inches
Weight empty: 7 pounds
 Weight filled: 45 pounds

Fuzing: No fuze

Tail No: No.36 Mk I

Color and markings: Dull red overall,
stiffeners and distance pieces painted black,
"HANDLE WITH CARE" stencilled between stiffeners.

  
Description: The bomb consists of a square-section, tin-plate, 5-gallon, petrol can.  On one face are two corrugated stiffeners, which serve to increase the strength of the can and also act as distance pieces between the can and the drop bar of the Small Bomb Container in which the bomb is carried.  A charging hole, with screwed cap and washer, and another distance piece are provided at the top of the can.  At diagonally opposite corners on the top of the can are two metal loops for attachment of the 12-inch by 21-in fabric tail, which acts as a flight stabilizer.  Two handles for lifting the bomb are soldered to opposite faces of the can.  Bombs of later issue may have a third handle, located on the face, to which the stiffeners are soldered.


Functioning: The bomb is fuzeless and functions by break-up.  The igniter consists of droplets of a liquid which reacts with water to produce small sparks.  The liquid is dispersed in a thick oil, which floats on water.

The sparks produced are not sufficient to ignite fuel oil or paraffin, but ignite petrol immediately.  Thus, when the KOFQR ignites the petrol, which ignites the layer of oil floating on the water.


Suspension: Three of the bombs are carried in the Small Bomb Container 250lb.


Filling: The charging consists of 4 and 1/2 gallons of aviation or MT petrol mixed with one quart of KOFQR igniter.

Remarks: This bomb is intended for the ignition of patches of fuel oil or petrol present on the surface of the sea, rivers, or other inland waterways, during attacks on oil-carrying vessels or oil-storage installations.







 IB 400lb Mk I (Service)
    



Overall length: 60.8 inches
Body length: 40.7 inches
Body diameter: 17.6 inches
Tail length: 21.2 inches
Tail width: 17.5 inches

Fuzing: Tail Pistol No.60 Mk I

Tail No: No. 79 Mk I

Color and markings: Dull red overall,
black letter stencilling.

  
Body construction: The bomb body consists of a thin sheet-steel cylinder with a tail plate welded at one end and a nose at the other.  The nose is recessed to accommodate a cast-iron weight, which is secured ion position with bolts. 

Three perforated baffles are welded internally to the bomb case to reduce surging of the filling while the bomb is suspended aboard the aircraft.  An internally threaded adapter in the center of the tail plate serves as a charging hole and also for the fitting of the exploder container.  A cowl welded to the tail plate has six equi-spaced springs riveted inside it.  These springs form an attachment for the six fasteners which secure the tail unit to the bomb.  These fasteners consist of a stud and a leaf spring.  The studs have an external screw-driver slot and an internal cam slot.  The cam slot engages the spring attached to the cowl.


Tail Construction: The Tail No.79 Mk I consist of a cylindrical strut attached to the tail cone by means of three tail fins.  The arming fork has only one prong, which engages the T-bar of the Pistol No.60.


Suspension: This bomb is equipped for suspension in either British or American aircraft, having on one side a single suspension lug, and dual lugs 180 degrees removed.


Filling:
Exploders: CE, 3-ring and 2 solid pellets
Filling: 6% Aluminum laurate, 2% creosole, and 5% napalm.

Remarks: This bomb is filled with a highly volatile, inflammable gel which is readily ignited by naked flame, or by contact with water.  The filling may smell of gasoline, or carbolic acid.  Rubber boots, gloves, and eye-shields are recommended for all personnel engaged in disposal operations on this bomb.  If the filling comes into contact with the skin, all traces should be swapped off with a rag soaked in gasoline or paraffin, and the effected area should then be washed with water and the patient treated for alkali burns.  Contaminated equipment should be cleaned with gasoline or paraffin, and then washed with water.







 IB 500lb Mk I (Service)
    



Overall length: 66 inches
Body diameter: 13.1 inches
Body length: 41 inches
Wall thickness: 3/16 inches
Tail length: 28 inches
Tail width: 13.1 inches

Fuzing: Tail Pistol No.30

Tail No: No.31 Mk I

Color and markings: Grey overall,
3-inch red band 7 inches from nose,
3-inch dull red band 9 inches from tail.

  
Body construction: This bomb consists of a cylindrical, metal container with a hemispherical nose and tail piece welded at either end.  Burster containers are located at either end of the bomb, and, in the tail, to one side of the burster tube, is a filling hole closed with a threaded plug.  A tail locating ring is welded around the tail portion of the bomb body.

Although provision is made in the bomb for alternate nose or tail fuzing, the nose pocket is always closed with a plug, and only the tail pocket is employed.


Tail construction: The Tail No.31 Mk I consist of a sheet-metal tail cone to which are riveted four vanes supported by a cylindrical metal strut.  The tail is attached to the bomb by four spring clips which engage the tail locating ring on the after end of the bomb body.  Inside the tail cone, supporting the lower end of the reach rod, is located a diaphragm with four large holes to allow air passage.


Suspension: A single suspension lug is provided for carrying in British planes, and two additional lugs for US suspension are 180 degrees removed.


Filling: 16 gallons of liquid phosphorus

Remarks: This is a special purpose bomb designed primarily for low-level bombing operations.  Its use will be restricted to special missions.

It is recommended that personnel engaged in disposal operations on this bomb be equipped with rubber boots and gloves, and that these be kept damp.  All equipment and protective clothing which may have come into contact with the liquid phosphorus should be washed thoroughly immediately after use.

The contents of this bomb will ignite immediately with a highly incendiary effect upon contact with the air.  Following the bursting of this bomb, a dense smoke screen will be emitted for at least two hours.

 







Smoke Bombs Introduction


There are at present in service use only four smoke bombs, exclusive of thos bombs containing smoke spotting charges.  These are the 4-, 100-, 120-, and 500-lb smoke bombs.  The bombs are used to lay smoke screens to conceal troop movements.

These bombs are fuzed in the tail, except the 120lb, which takes a nose fuze.

Smoke bombs are colored dark green overall with a  red band around the body.  The 4lb bomb is merely a cylindrical sheet-metal can.  The 100lb is the same size and shape as the 45lb incendiary, with a white phosphorus filling.  The 120lb bomb consists of an outer container and an inner smoke canister which is blown out of the rear of the container by an ejection charge.

The 4lb bombs are preferably carried in Cluster Projectile No.6, Mk I, while the 100lb and 120lb smoke bombs are generally carried in the Small Bomb Container, 250lb.  The 500lb bomb is suspended individually in most 500lb bomb stations.







Smoke 4lb Mks I, II, and IV (Service)
    



Overall length: 7.5 inches
Body length: 7.5 inches
Body diameter: 3.6 inches
 Total weight: 8 pounds, 14 ounces
Burning time: Mk I - 4 mins, Mk II - 8-12 mins

Fuzing: Tail Fuze No.859

Tail No: Fabric tail

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
red band around nose.

  
Description: The bomb consists of a cylindrical metal body closed at both ends and containing a smoke composition.  At the tail end of the bomb is a baffle plate secured to the body and provided with a smoke emission hole covered by a strip of primed fabric held in place by two strips of adhesive tape.  Beneath the baffle plate is an igniter pellet secured to a strawboard washer.  The hole in the washer is filled with match composition which contacts the igniter pellet.  The igniter pellet is set in the smoke composition.

Above the baffle plate is a lid secured to the bomb body and provided with a screw-threaded fuze adapter.  The Fuze No.859 Mk I is screwed and cemented into the fuze adapter.


Functioning: When the bomb is released from the Small Bomb Container, the safety cap of the fuze is drawn off by the action of air resistance drogue.  The lead sleeve on the webbing tape attached to the safety pin causes the free end of the tape to clear the waisted portion of the fuze body and be caught in the air stream, thus withdrawing the safety pin.  The fuze is now armed, with the lead ball and striker held away from the detonator by the creep spring alone.

On impact with the target, the fuze functions.  The flash from the detonator passes through the flash hole in the fuze body and fires the primed cambric strip, which in turn ignites the match composition.  The match composition fires the igniter pellet, and this ignites the smoke composition.

The some generated passes through the smoke-emission hole in the baffle plate and builds up pressure beneath the lid, thus bursting the adhesive tape covering the small smoke-emission hole in the lid and permitting the smoke to escape into the air.  After a short period of time the heat evolved in the bomb melts the solder securing the lid to the bomb body, and the pressure of the smoke then forces off the lid.


Suspension: These bombs are designed to be carried either in the 250lb Small Bomb Container, or the 500lb Cluster Projectile No. 6 Mk I, Smoke.  In the former, the bombs are packed 14 in a metal case, and three cases are placed in the Container.  In the latter, 90 bombs are carried in five tiers of 18 bombs each.  They are placed end to end longitudinally, with the fuzes pointing in opposite directions in alternate tiers.


Filling: The filling of the bomb consists of a cambric strip primed with SR 252, a cambric square primed with sulphurless gunpowder, 1/4lb smoke composition SR 269 (M), and 3 and 1/4 lb smoke composition SR 264A (M).

Remarks: Spontaneous ignition of smoke compositions may result if the filling is wetted, especially by sea water.  The bombs are dropped from aircraft to produce a smoke screen to cover land operations.

The Bomb Mk II is identical to the Mk I, except that the smoke composition is slower burning.  The Bomb Mk IV is similar to the Mk II, except that the closing lid of the bomb body and the igniter pellet are slightly altered.






Smoke 100lb Mks I and II (Service)
    



Overall length: 18.3 inches
Body length: 18.3 inches
Body diameter: 10 inches square
Tail length: 21 inches
Tail width: 12 inches
Total weight: 92-95 pounds
Charge/weight ratio: 85% (approx.)

Fuzing: Tail fuze No.854 Mk I

Tail No: Fabric Tail

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
red band around lower part of body.

  
Description: The bomb consists of a thin tin-plate can of square cross-section, to one face of which are soldered two corrugate stiffeners, which serve to increase the strength of the can and also act as distance pieces between the can and the drop bar of the 250lb Small Bomb Container.  A burster container, to take the Fuze No.854 Mk I and its burster, and an offset filling hole are provided in the top of the can, together with a large circular distance piece.

The burster container is closed, during transit and storage, by a rolled-thread tin-plate, transit plug.  The filling hole is permanently sealed by a rolled-thread filling-hole cap, seating on a sealing disc.  This cap must in no circumstances be unscrewed from the bomb; and, as it is fitted with a short Tommy bar, it may be readily distinguished from the transit plug.

Three handles for lifting the bomb are provided, and at two diagonally opposite corners of the can are soldered metal loops for the attachment of a fabric tail, which acts as a stabilizer to the bomb.


Functioning: On impact of the fuzed bomb with its target, the "all-ways" action fuze functions instantaneously.  The explosion of its burster disrupts the bomb and scatters the white phosphorus filling, which, on contact with the air, ignites spontaneously and begins to give off smoke.


Suspension: These bombs are carried three in a 250lb Small Bomb Container.  In the container, they are separated from each other by the distance pieces on the end of each bomb.


Filling: 86lb white phosphorus

Remarks: The Bomb Mk II is similar to the Mk I in operation, differing only in the following minor structural details.  The filling hole is centrally located in the top of the can.  Two small distance pieces are provided at the top of the can and are located at diagonally opposite corners, on either side of the filling hole.  The two metal loops to which the fabric tail is secured differ slightly in design from those used on the Bomb Mk I.

These bombs have a burning time of 15-20 minutes and provide an effective screen 250-300 yards in length.  They are dropped from aircraft to produce smoke screens for covering land operations.






 Smoke 120lb Mks I and II (Service)
    



Overall length: 31 inches
Body length: 15.8 inches
Body diameter: 9.5 inches
Tail length: 15.1 inches
Tail width: 10 inches
Total weight: 120 pounds
Burning time: 20 minutes

Fuzing: Nose Fuze No.864 Mk I

Tail No: No.41 Mk II

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
1/2-inch red band around nose,
tail is light green.

  
Body construction: The bomb consists of a cylindrical body to which the tail unit is secured.  The body houses a metal container filled with a smoke composition, and a gunpowder ejection charge contained in nine celluloid capsules.  The bomb body is a steel tube welded to a flattened nose-piece.  The nose-piece is centrally tapped to receive the fuze, and during transit and storage, is sealed by a nose transit plug and leather washer.  A suspension lug is welded to the exterior of the bomb body.

A steel flash plate, abutting the nose-piece within the bomb body, has a steel collar secured to it.  A small centrally located hole is drilled through the flash plate, and is sealed by a paper disc.  The nine celluloid capsules, each filled with 1 ounce, 1 drm. of gunpowder, are retained in the collar by a cardboard sleeve, and felt and cardboard washers.  The sleeve has six equi-spaced holes near its inner end.

The metal container, filled with approximately 50lb of smoke composition (H.C.E.), is housed in the bomb body against the flash plate.  It has a 3-inch diameter hole sealed with a celluloid disc.  Between this disc and the smoke composition there are four strawboard washers, each with a 1 and 1/2-inch diameter hole, the hole so formed being sealed by two squares of primed fabric.  The container is retained in position against the flash plate by a closing plate fitted into the rear end of the bomb body, and secured by four turned-over metal tabs.

Tail construction: The tail unit is secured to the bomb body by eight drive screws, and consists of a tail cone to which a cylindrical vane is secured by four vane supports.


Functioning: On impact of the bomb with the target, the magazine of the fuze explodes after a delay of not less than 1/2 second, during which period the bomb will have come to rest.  The flash from the fuze magazine, passing through the hole in the flash plate and the celluloid disc, ignites the two primed cambric squares, which in turn ignite the smoke composition in the container.

Concurrently with the ignition of the smoke composition, the flash from the fuze magazine also passes through the holes in the cardboard sleeve to initiate the gunpowder ejection charge contained in the nine celluloid capsules.  The resulting explosion of the gunpowder ejects the tail, the closing plate, the container of burning composition, and the flash plate, clear of the crater formed by the bomb.


Suspension: Two bombs may be carried in a 250lb Small Bomb Container, or the bombs may be suspended individually by a single lug.  The Bombs Mk II may be fitted with twin lugs for suspension in American aircraft.


Filling: Smoke composition (H.C.E.)

Remarks: The smoke composition contained in these bombs is liable to spontaneous ignition if it should become wet, particularly with sea water.  The Bomb Mk II is similar to the Mk I in operation, the principal differences being a modified tail assembly and arrangement for twin suspension lugs for carrying in American aircraft.






Smoke 500lb Mk I (Service)
    



Overall length: 66 inches
Body length: 41 inches
Body diameter: 13.1 inches
Wall thickness: 3/16 inches
Tail length: 28 inches
Tail width: 13.1 inches
Total weight: 400 pounds (approx.)
Charge/weight: 60%

Fuzing: Tail Pistol No.30 Mk IV

Tail No: No.31 Mk I

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
red band around the lower part of the body.

  
Body construction: The bomb consists of a cylindrical metal container with a hemispherical nose and tail piece welded at either end.  Burster containers are located at each end of the bomb and, in the tail, to one side of the burster tube, is a filling hole closed with a threaded plug.  A tail locating ring is welded around the after portion of the bomb body. 

Although provision is made in the bomb for alternate nose or tail fuzing, the nose pocket is always closed with a  plug, and only the tail pocket is employed.


Tail construction: The Tail No.31 Mk I consists of a sheet-metal tail cone to which are riveted four vanes supported by a cylindrical metal strut.  The tail is attached to the bomb by four spring clips, which engage the tail locating ring on the after end of the bomb body.  Inside the tail cone, supporting the lower end of the reach rod, is located a diaphragm with four large holes to allow air passage.


Suspension: A single suspension lug is provided for carrying in British planes, while two additional lugs are located 180 degrees around from the first for American suspension.


Filling: 270 pounds of white phosphorus








Smoke 500lb Mk II (Service)
    



Overall length: 67 inches
Body length: 46 inches
Body diameter: 13 inches
Tail length: 22 inches
Tail width: 13 inches

Fuzing: Tail Fuze No.885 or No.886

Tail No: No.81 Mk I

Color and markings: Dark green overall,
red band near nose,
black stencilling.

  
Body construction: The bomb consists of a cylindrical bomb body made of thin sheet steel, with a nose plate welded to one end of the body.  Three catch brackets, spaced 120 degrees apart, are welded to the nose plate, and a nose fairing is secured to the catch brackets by spring clips.  Immediately beneath the nose plate is located a loading plate.  An exploder pocket is welded to the nose plate and contains an ejection charge.  A nose plug is screwed into the exploder pocket.

An igniter tube with four series of perforations extends down the center axis of the bomb and contains a celluloid tube holding a primed cambric tube.  The igniter tube is held in place by the igniter-tube holder, located in the center of the tail plate.  The remainder of the bomb body is filled with three banks of smoke generators, each bank consisting of eight wedge-shaped units fitted with drag plates.

A tail plate, to which is welded the fuze adapter, is secured to the inside of the after end of the bomb body by six brass rivets.  A tail locating ring is fitted to the inside of the tail plate.

Tail construction: The Tail No.81 Mk I consists of a cylindrical strut held in place on the truncated tail cone by four sheet metal fins.  The tail is held in place on the bomb by the usual four spring clips, which engage in four similar recesses in the tail ring on the bomb body.  A locating pin in the tail ring engages a slot in the bottom edge of the tail cone to position the tail.


Functioning: When the bomb is released from the aircraft, the fuze is armed.  At a predetermined height, the fuze functions and the flash from the fuze magazine ignites the contents of the igniter tube.  The perforations in the igniter tube allow the burning celluloid and primed cambric to initiate the smoke generators and eventually the ejection charge.  The pressure of the gases generated by the ignition of the ejection charge bears against the loading plate and forces the whole inner assembly against the tail plate, which shears the six brass rivets holding it to the bomb casing.  The tail plate and attached tail unit are then thrown clear of the bomb, and the bomb contents are ejected through the tail.


Suspension: This bomb is equipped for suspension in either British or American aircraft, having a single suspension lug on one side and dual lugs 180 degrees removed.


Remark: Should water, especially sea water, come into contact with the smoke composition used in this bomb, the smoke composition is liable to spontaneous combustion due to chemical action.












Light Chase (Chemical) Bombs Introduction


There are at present in service use only four sizes of L.C. (chemical) bombs.  These are the 30-, 65-, 250-, and 500-lb LC bombs.  These bombs are designed to contaminate an area by dispersal of their gas filling.

The 30- and 65-lb bombs are constructed of very light gauge metal, and are designed to operate either by break-up on impact, or by functioning of their fuzes.  The 250- and 500-lb bombs are made of slightly heavier gauge metal, and are nose fuzed to function on impact with a target, or possibly for aerial burst, in the case of the 500-lb bomb.

All L.C. bombs are painted grey overall and have additional color bands to indicate the type of gas with which they are filled.




LC 30lb Mks I and IM (Service)
    



Overall length (fuzed): 32.75 inches
Body diameter: 5 inches
Total weight: 30 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: Nose Fuze No.38 Mk I or II



Color and markings: Grey overall,
colored bands to indicate filling.

  
Body construction: The bomb consist of a steel, tubular body to which is welded a steel tail plate, a steel nose plate, and a nose fairing.  The fuze container is screwed and welded into the nose plate.

A spigot, having a central charging hole, is welded into the tail plate and closed by the charging-hole plug.  The spigot has external threads onto which the trail is threaded.

The inside of the bomb usually has a protecting coating of bakelite varnish to retard corrosion.  The external areas around the charging hole plug and fuze container are painted with khaki detector paint, which turns red when exposed to gas.

Tail construction: The tail consists of a tin-plate cone, the apex of which is surrounded by a cylindrical tail vane connected to the cone by vane supports.  A diaphragm, having a threaded hole by which the tail is threaded onto the spigot, closes the base of the tail; and a tail adapter closes the apex of the tail.  An adjusting bolt, having a rounded head, is screwed into the tail adapter and locked in position by a lock nut.


Functioning: On impact with a soft target the fuze functions, and, after a short delay during which time the bomb has come to rest, ignites the gunpowder ejection charge, thus blowing off the tail and tail plate and ejecting the chemical filling.  On impact with a hard target, the bomb will normally break up and distribute the charging before the ejection charge functions.


Suspension: The Mk I and Mk IM can be carried in the 250lb Small Bomb Container.  The Mk IM can be used on a Light Series bomb carrier when fitted with a suspension band.


Remarks: The Bomb Mk I may be fitted with retarding equipment consisting of a flat nose cap, which replaces the nose fairing, and a flat steel retarded plate, which is held in place on the tail by the adjusting bolt and lock nut.

The Mk IM bomb is the same as the Mk I except for two locating pieces, welded to the body, which serve to locate a suspension band. 





  


LC 30lb Mk II (Service)
    



Overall length: 32.8 inches
Body diameter: 5 inches
Total weight: 30 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: None

Color and markings: Grey overall,
colored bands to indicate filling.

  
Body construction: The bomb has a cylindrical, plated body of light-gauge metal.  A steel nose is threaded onto a nose spigot and held in position by a securing screw.  A compression chamber in the nose of the bomb collapses if the bomb is roughly handled, and so reduces the possibility of rupturing the seams of the bomb.

The tail is screwed onto a tail spigot which contains the charging hole and is closed by the charging hole plug.  Adhesive tape provides an external seal between the tail and the bomb body.  The after end of the tail is closed by a closing cap.

The inside of the bomb usually has a protective coating of bakelite varnish, and the areas around the charging-hole plug and body seams, also the adhesive tape, are painted with khaki detector paint, which turns red when exposed to gas.


Functioning: The bomb breaks upon impact with a target and scatters the filling.  It should not be dropped on soft targets from over 1,000 feet.


Suspension: The bomb is carried in a 250lb Small Bomb Container.








LC 65lb Mks I and II (Service)
    



Overall length: 18.3 inches
Body diameter: 6 inches (approx.)
Total weight: 63 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: None

Color and markings: Grey overall,
colored bands to indicate filling.

  
Body construction: The bodies of the Bombs Mk I and Mk II are the same as those of the Smoke 100lb Mks I and II, respectively, except that the LC bombs do not have any provision for fuzing.  The tails of both LC and Smoke bombs are exactly the same.


Functioning: On release from the Small Bomb Container, the fabric tail of each bomb unfurls and acts to stabilize the bomb in flight.  On impact with the target, the bomb breaks up and the filling is scattered.


Suspension: Three bombs are carried in the 250lb Small Bomb Container. 










LC 250lb Mks I, IB.V., II, and II* (Service)
    



Body length: 34.25 inches
Body diameter: 12 inches
Tail length: 27.2 inches
Tail width: 12 inches
Total weight: 250 pounds (approx.)

Fuzing: Nose Fuze No.36 Mks I and II when loaded in Universal-type bomb carrier; Nose Pistol No.44 when tier-type stowage is used.

Tail No: No.1 Mk I

Color and markings: Grey overall,
colored bands to indicate filling.

  
Body construction: The Bomb Mk II consist of a tubular steel body to which a hemispherical nose is welded.  A burster container is screwed and cemented into the nose.  A tail plate is welded to the other end of the body and has a spigot through which passes a charging hole.  The charging hole is closed by a square-headed charging hole plug.  The skirt of the tail plate is provided with two bayonet slots and a circular hole to retain the tail or transit base.  The interior of the bomb is varnished, and the areas around the charging-hole plug and the burster container are coated with khaki-colored detector paint, which turns red when exposed to gas.


Tail construction: The Tail No.1 Mk  I consists of a tail cone at the apex of which a circular strut is attached by fins.  A skirt at the base of the tail cone has two fixed pins and a third pin, secured to a leaf spring, which engage the bayonet slots and the hole in the skirt of the tail.


Suspension: The bomb is fitted with a single suspension lug for carrying on a Universal-type bomb carrier.  It is also carried in US aircraft using tier-type bomb stowage.  The bomb may also be equipped with a trunnion band for carrying on dive bombers.


Filling: Chemical warfare agent.

Remarks: The Bomb Mk II* is the same as the Mk II, only the burster container is welded in addition to being screwed and cemented in place.  The bomb Mk I differs from the Mk II in that the interior is unvarnished and the burster container is secured by welding only.  The Mk IB.V. differs from the Mk II in that the burster container is welded on, and the tail plate has a slightly smaller internal diameter.  The letters B.V. stand for the "Bakelite Varnish" which is applied internally to the walls of this bomb.








LC 500lb Mk II (Service)
    



Overall length: 66 inches
Body length: 41 inches
Body diameter: 13.1 inches
Tail length: 28 inches
Tail width: 12.8 inches
Total weight: 330lb (approx.)

Fuzing:
-Aerial Burst: US Nose Fuze M111, M111 A1, or M111 A2;
-Ground Burst: Nose Pistol No.44 Mk I, II, or III, and Tail Pistol No.30 Mk IV.

Tail No: No.31 Mk I

Color and markings: Grey overall,
colored bands to indicate filling.

  
Body construction: The bomb consists of a light, tubular container of welded sheet steel to which a nose dome and tail dome, each fitted with a burster container, are welded.  The tail dome also contains the charging hole, which is closed by a steel charging hole plug.  A tail locating ring is welded to the tail dome.

The body has four rectangular slots and a locating pin for the attachment of the tail.  The interior of the bomb is unvarnished.


Tail construction: The Tail No.31 Mk I consists of a tail cone to which a cylindrical strut is attached by four tail fins.  The base of the cone is fitted with four spring clips, each of which is provided with a turnbuckle locking clip.  A slot on the base of the cone fits over the locating pin on the bomb to insure correct positioning on assembly.

The conventional type of arming assembly is fitted into the tail.


Suspension: A single suspension lug is present for use on British planes, while two lugs 180 degrees removed, provide for suspension on US planes.


Filling: 14 and 1/2 gallons of the designated chemical warfare agent.










Next Time: Practice, Infantry Training, and Miscellaneous Bombs