Monday, 5 December 2016

British Explosive Ordnance - General Purpose Bombs







British Explosive Ordnance





Introduction


General Purpose bombs are heavy-cased bombs ranging in weight from 40 pounds to 4000 pounds.  The smaller bombs are used mainly as anti-personnel bombs, while the larger ones are used for general bombardment purposes.

The earlier marks of these bombs are fitted with central tubes to take the exploding components, but later marks are fitted with exploder containers at the nose end, or at the nose and tail ends.  Bombs with central tubes or with exploder containers at each end may be fuzed at both ends, or at either end, depending on the operational requirements.  Bombs fuzed at the nose only are fitted with instantaneous detonators, while bombs fuzed at the tail are usually fitted with delay detonators.  If bombs are fuzed at both the nose and the tail with instantaneous detonators, the nose assembly will function first, on account of the direct action of the nose pistol.  The general practice is to ship GP bombs with a tail pistol in place, but without detonators, altering the fuzing as may be desired prior to loading the bombs on the plane.

GP bombs are generally streamlined in shape, cast in one piece, and have a male base plate.  To facilitate handling in storage and shipment, the bombs have a transit base of the same diameter as the maximum diameter of the bomb.  Before using, bombs under 1,000 pounds are equipped with a tail unit that clips in place.  Bombs of 1,000 pounds and over employ a tail unit which is secured by wing bolts.

TNT, Amatol, and RDX/TNT are the explosives commonly employed as main fillings to give a charge/weight ratio of approximately thirty percent.

GP bombs are painted dark green overall and have a 1/2 inch red band at the nose, and a 1 inch light green band on which the type of filling is stencilled.








GP 40lb, Stabilized, Mks I, II, III (Service), and Mk IV (Obsolete)

  
Overall length: 27.25 inches
Body length: 15.9 inches
Body diameter:
-Mk I: 5.01 inches
-Mk II and III: 5.05 inches
Wall thickness: 0.47 inches
Tail length: 11.4 inches
Tail width: 4.88 inches
Total weight: 38.5 pounds (Mk III)
Charge/Weight ratio: 17% (approximately)

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.29, 34, 38, or 45.  Nose Fuze No. 873

Color and markings:  Dark green overall
1/2 inch red band 1 inch from nose,
1 inch light green band 5 and 1/2 inches from nose

  
Body Construction: The bomb body is made of cast steel.  The open nose end is threaded internally to receive an exploder container, which is screwed and cemented in position and locked by a set screw.  The read end of the bomb is closed and reduced in diameter to form a spigot.

A boss on the spigot is drilled and tapped to receive the forward threaded end of a tail rod.  The exploder container is in the form of a tube closed at one end, the open end of which is threaded internally to take the pistol.


Tail Construction: A cylindrical strut is attached to a tall cone by four fins.  The tail unit is secured to the body by a tail rod which extends axially through the tail cone.  The forward end of the rod, which screws into the central boss on the spigot at the rear of the bomb body, is locked by a spring washer and a lock nut.  The rear end of tail cone is fitted with an internally threaded flanged adapter, which screws on the threaded rear end of tail rod, correctly location the tail cone on the bomb body.  The tail is locked in position by a spring washer and lock nut screwed against the adapter.

Suspension:
-Mk I: Normally carried 6 in the 250lb Small Bomb Container, although a limited number have a single suspension lug.

-Mk II: Normally carried 6 in the 250lb Small Bomb Container; may be fitted with a suspension band.

-Mk III: Has a suspension lug, and may be carried 6 in the 250lb Small Bomb Container, or on Light Series bomb carriers.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders: TNT (1 oz, 7 dr) and CE (4 oz, 6 dr) retained by a waxed felt washer.

Main Filling:
Mk I: 6.3lb Amatol 80/20
Mk II: 6.5lb TNT, or 6.7lb RDX/TNT 60/40
Mk III: 6.5lb Amatol 60/40, or 6.7lb of RDX/TNT 60.40


Remarks: This bomb is usually used as a fragmentation bomb, being almost identical to the 20lb fragmentation bomb except for size.

The exploder system of the Bomb Mk IV was changed to use only CE pellets, and a special retarder tail was incorporated.











GP 40lb, Parachute, Mks I, II, and III (Service)
   


Same as previous entry except as follows:
Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.33 Mk I

Body Construction: This bomb is of cast-steel body, the nose end of which is fitted with an exploder container screwed and cemented in position, and locked by a locking screw.  The exploder container is threaded to take the pistol.  The rear end of the bomb body is closed and reduced in diameter to form a spigot with a central boss, which is drilled and tapped to receive an eyebolt.  The parachute tail unit is secured to the body by means of the eyebolt.


Tail Construction: The parachute tail unit consists of a cylindrical strut attached to the rear end of a tail tube by four fins.  The parachute is packed in a fabric cylinder, which is closed at its rear end and fits inside the tail tube.  The rear end of the fabric cylinder is connected by pilot lanyards to a flanged cover which fits loosely in the cylindrical strut and is retained in position to close the rear end of the tube by means of a wire transit clip.









GP 250lb Mks I, II, and III (Service)


Overall length: 54.2 inches
Body length: 28 inches
 Body diameter: 10.8 inches 
Wall thickness: 0.6 inches
Tail width: 10.2 inches
Total weight: 247 pounds (TNT)
Charge/Weight ratio: 27%

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.19; Tail Pistol No. 22 or No. 17

Tail No: No. 1 Mk I (Mk III Only)
  

Color and markings:  Yellow overall
1/2 inch red band around nose,
1 inch light green band around body;
longitudinal green bar on body and tail indicates explodering(?) scheme

  
Body Construction: This bomb body consists of a streamlined steel casting or forging threaded at the nose to take a nose adapter, which holds the central exploder tube.  At the other end of the casting is a threaded base plug through which the exploder tube passes.  Welded to the end of the casting is a streamlined section of thin metal, containing no explosive, but tapered to take the tail ring.  The exploder also passes through this section.


Tail Construction: Four mild steel fins are fastened to a truncated cone, and are reinforced by a cylindrical strut.  The cone fits over the rear section of the bomb body and is held to it by a lock nut over the exploder tube.

Suspension: A single suspension lug is secured to the body by four screws.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders: TNT and CE pellets

Main Filling: 68lb TNT, or 63lb Amatol 80/20


Remarks: Tail fins are usually painted red when a time pistol is used.  This bomb, previously declared "Obsolete", has recently been returned to service use by the RAF.











GP 250lb Mks IV, V, and VI (Service)


Overall length: 66 inches
Body length:
-Mk IV: 25.6 inches
-Mk V: 27.6 inches

 Body diameter: 10.2 inches 
Wall thickness: 0.52 inches
Tail length: 27.7 inches
Tail width: 10.2 inches
Total weight: 230 pounds
Charge/Weight ratio: 29%

Fuzing:
-Mk IV: Nose Pistol No.27, 42, or 44; Tail Pistol No.28, 30, or 37
-Mk V: Tail Pistol No.17 (Long Delay) only
-Mk VI: See Remarks

Tail No: No.2 Mk II (early Mk IV uses No.2 Mk I)
  

Color and markings:  Dark Green overall
1/4 inch red band 1 inch from nose,
1 inch light green band 6 inches from nose body;
1 inch by 1/4 inch white line on the body base indicates that bomb has been filled.

  
Body Construction:

-Mk IV: The body consists of a hollow steel casting open at each end.  The nose end is internally threaded to house the exploder container, which is locked in position by a locking screw.  The tail end is shaped to take the tail cone, and is provided with four equally spaced supports, which locate the spring clips on the tail.  A male base plate threads into the after end of the body and has two threaded holes to receive the transit base plate.

-Mk V: The Mk V Bomb is the same externally as the Mk IV, but is fitted with a central exploder tube instead of the exploder containers at the nose and tail.  This bomb does not take a nose pistol, but uses only the No. 17 Long Delay Pistol.  The nose opening is filled by a nose plug.


Tail Construction: The No. 2 Mk I Sheet-Metal Tail is attached to the body by four spring clips.  The tail consists of a tail cone with a cylindrical tail strut attached to it by four fins.  The spring clips are fitted to the base of the cone, which is slotted to engage the locating pin on the bomb body.  At the apex of the tail cone is fitted a bush, locating one end of the arming spindle, which is supported at the opposite end by a diaphragm at the base of the tail cone.  The inner end of the arming spindle has an arming fork attached to it which engages the arming fork of the tail pistol of the bomb.

Suspension: The bomb has a single suspension lug secured to it by four countersunk screws.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders: TNT and CE

Main Filling: 67.75lb TNT or 67lb Amatol 60/40


Remarks: The Bomb Mk V was manufactured to use up existing stocks of the Pistol No. 17 (long delay), which is too long to fit in the Bomb Mk IV.

The No. 845 Anti-Disturbance Fuze, formerly incorporated in the nose when the Tail Pistol No.37 was used, is now obsolete.

The Bomb Mk VI is made in the US and uses fuzes manufactured there to British designs: Nose Fuze Mk VII, M3, and Tail Fuze Mk V, M1.
















GP 500lb Mks IV, V, and VI (Service)


Overall length (w/ No.2 Tail): 70.6 inches
Overall length (w/ No.26 Tail): 55.6 inches

Body length:
-Mk IV: 37.2 inches
-Mk V: 36.4 inches

 Body diameter: 12.9 inches 
Wall thickness: 0.72 inches

Tail length:
-No.2 Mk I: 33.4 inches
-No.26 Mk I: 20.4 inches

Tail width: 12.9 inches
Total weight: 470 pounds (with No.2 Tail)
Charge/Weight ratio: 31% (approx.)

Fuzing:
-Mk IV: Nose Pistol No.27, 42, or 44; Tail Pistol No.28, 30, or 37
-Mk V: Tail Pistol No.17 (long delay) only
-Mk VI: See Remarks

Tail No: No.2 Mk I, or No.26 Mk I or II
  

Color and markings:  Dark Green overall
1/2 inch red band 1 inch from nose,
1 inch light green band 8 inches from nose;
1 inch by 1/5 inch white line on the body base indicates that bomb has been filled.

  
Body Construction:

-Mk IV: The body consists of a hollow steel casting open at each end.  The nose end is internally threaded to house the exploder container, which is locked in position by a locking screw.  The tail end is shaped to take the tail cone, and is provided with four equally spaced slots to locate the spring clips on the tail.  A male base plate threads into the after end of the body and has two threaded holes to receive the transit base plate.

-Mk V: This bomb is externally the same as the Mk IV, but has a central exploder tube instead of the exploder pockets at either end.  The fuzing is in the tail only, and the nose is closed by a nose plug which has a cross cut in the end, instead of a ring as in the Bomb Mk IV.


Tail Construction: The 500lb Tail No.2 Mk I differs from the 250lb Tail No.2 Mk I only in the weight and dimensions.  The tail assembly consist of a tail cone with a cylindrical tail strut attached to it by four fins.  It is attached to the bomb body by four spring clips.

The 500lb Tail Assembly No. 26 Mk I is similar to the 500lb Tail No. 2 Mk I, differing mainly in weight and dimensions.  It is used on the 500lb GP Bombs Mk IV or Mk V when carried externally on high-speed fighter aircraft, or internally on fighter bombers of the Mosquito type.  The tail and fins are shorter and it has a two-bladed arming vane instead of the four-bladed arming vane used on the Tail No.2 Mk I.

Suspension: The bomb has a single suspension lug slightly aft of center of gravity, and secured to it by four countersunk screws.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders:
-Mk IV: TNT and CE
-Mk V: CE pellets and TNT in central exploder tube rather than exploder pocket at each end

Main Filling: 144.5lb of TNT or 143lb Amatol 60/40


Remarks: The Bomb Mk V was manufactured to use up existing stocks of the Pistol No. 17 (long delay), which are too long to fit in the Bomb Mk IV.

The No. 845 Anti-Disturbance Fuze, formerly incorporated in the nose when the Tail Pistol No.37 was used, is now obsolete.

Tail fins are usually painted red when a time pistol is used.

The Bomb Mk VI is made in the US and uses fuzes manufactured there to British designs: Nose Fuze Mk VII, M3, and Tail Fuze Mk V, M1.












GP 1,000lb Mks I - IV (Service)


Overall length (w/ No.13 Mk I Tail): 86.5 inches
Overall length (w/ No.29 Mk I Tail): 71 inches
Body length: 52.5 inches
Body diameter: 16.15 inches 
Wall thickness: 0.77 inches

Tail length:
-No.13 Mk I: 35.5 inches
-No.29 Mk I: 20 inches

Tail width: 16 inches
Total weight: 1,072 pounds (with short tail and Amatol-filled)
Charge/Weight ratio: 33%

Fuzing:
-Mks I and II: Nose Pistol No.27, 42, or 44; Tail Pistol No.28, 30, 37
-Mks III and Mk IV: Tail Pistol No.28, 30, 37

Tail No: No.13 Mk I, or No.29 Mk I
  

Color and markings:  Dark Green overall
1/4 inch red band 2 inches from nose,
2 inch light green band 9 and 1/2 inches from nose

Body Construction:

-Mk I: The bomb consists of a hollow steel casting open at each end, with the nose end internally threaded to house a nose bush, which is screwed and cemented in position.  The bush is bored and threaded for part of its length to take an exploder container which is screwed and cemented in position.  The exploder container is threaded internally in the open end to house a detonator holder, which is also cemented in position and locked with a locking screw.  The detonator holder is threaded internally in the open end to take a pistol or a transit plug.  The after end of the bomb body is shaped externally to take a tail, and is provided with a locating pin to locate the tail when in position on the bomb.  A male base plate screws into the tail end of the body and is cemented in position.  The filling plug is bored and threaded internally to receive an exploder container, which houses the detonator holder and is inserted and locked in the same manner as the one used in the nose of the bomb.

-Mk II: Similar to the Mk I, except that the spigot on the tail end of the bomb body for locating the transit base and the seating on the bomb body for the suspension lug, are omitted.

-Mk III: Similar to Mk I, except that the exploder container and detonator holder are not fitted; the nose being plugged with a special adapter and transit plug which are welded in position.

-Mk IV: Similar to Mk II body, except that the nose is permanently plugged in a manner similar to the Mk III.


Tail Construction: The No.2 13 Mk I tail assembly consists of a tail cone, a cylindrical strut attached to the cone by four corrugate fins, and an arming mechanism for arming the tail pistol.  A tail ring near the base of the tail cone is drilled to house four wing bolts used for attaching the tail to the bomb body.  The arming mechanism consists of an arming spindle, one end of which is attached to the fork that engages the arming fork of the tail pistol.


-No.29 Mk I: Similar to the No. 13 Mk I, differing only in dimensions by having a shorter tail strut and fins.  The fins are not corrugated.  Arming vanes protrude beyond the cylindrical strut.
 
Suspension: The bomb has a single suspension lug 30 inches from nose plug tip, consisting of a rectangular stop plate to which is welded a lug.  The plate is secured to the bomb body by two screws.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders:  TNT and CE, with a wax-filled washer between the CE and the detonator holder.

Main Filling: 357lb Amatol 60/40 or 368lb RDX/TNT 60.40.  Each end of the bomb has the same sealing arrangement as the 1,900lb GP Bomb.


Remarks: The Mks I and II may be fuzed nose or tail, or both.  Mks III and IV are fuzed in the tail only.  The Anti-Disturbance Fuze No. 845 formerly incorporated in the nose when the Tail Pistol No.37 was used, is now obsolete.

The tail fins are usually painted red when a time pistol is used.












GP 1,900lb Mks I and II (Service)


Overall length: 98 inches
Body length: 63.2 inches
Body diameter: 18.7 inches 
Wall thickness: 1.15 inches
Tail length: 35.3 inches
Tail width: 18.7 inches
Total weight: 1,785
Charge/Weight ratio: 26%

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.27, 42, or 44; Tail Pistol No.28, 30, 37

Tail No: No.14 Mk I
  

Color and markings:  Dark Green overall
1/4 inch red band 2 inches from nose,
2 inch light green band 11 and 1/4 inches from nose

Body Construction:

-Mk I: The body consists of a hollow steel casting open at each end, with the nose end threaded internally to house a nose bush, which is screwed and cemented in position.  The bus is bored centrally and threaded for part of its length to take an exploder container.  The exploder container is locked to the nose bush by a locking screw, and is threaded internally at the open end to house a detonator holder, which takes a pistol or transit plug.  The after end of the bomb body is shaped externally to take the tail, and provided with a locating pin to locate the tail when in position on the bomb.  A male base plate screws into the base of the body and is cemented in position.  It is bored and threaded internally to receive an exploder container, which houses a detonator holder in the same manner as that at the nose.  A flat seating at the center of gravity is drilled and tapped to take four screws which secure a suspension lug.

-Mk II: Similar to Mk I, except that the spigot on the tail end of the body for locating the transit base, and the seating on the bomb body for the suspension lug, are omitted.


Tail Construction: The No.14 Mk I tail assembly consists of a tail cone, a cylindrical strut attached to the cone by four fins, and an arming mechanism for arming the tail pistol.  The tail cone is secured to the body by a tail ring, which houses four wing bolts used to attach the tail to the body.  Attached to the tail cone at the rear of the tail ring, is a spider in the form of a cross that support the forked end of the arming mechanism.  The rear of the tail cone is closed by a bush, which supports the arming vane end of the arming mechanism.  The arming spindle has a fork in the tail pistol, and an arming vane on the other end which is secured by a nut and washer.  The arming vane and spindle are prevented from rotating during transit by a safety clip.
 
Suspension: The bomb uses single suspension in the form of a stop plate with an integral lug.  The plate has four holes for the securing screws in attaching to the bomb body.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders:  TNT and CE

Main Filling: 470lb Amatol 60/40, sealed at the nose and with a pad of approved composition, and a 1/4 inch layer of TNT into which is pressed a felt washer.  The t ail end is sealed with a 3/16 inch layer of TNT, a pad, and a glazeboard washer.  The exploder containers are protected from the filling by paper tubes.


Remarks: The Anti-Disturbance Fuze No.845, formerly incorporated in the nose when the Tail Pistol No.37 was used, is now obsolete.

The tail fins are usually painted red when a time pistol is used.
















GP 4,000lb Mks I and II (Service)


Overall length: 106.5 inches
Body length: 79.3 inches
Body diameter: 24.5 inches 
Wall thickness: 1.35 inches
Tail length: 23.5 inches
Total weight: 3,587
Charge/Weight ratio: 30%


Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.27, 42, or 44; Tail Pistol No.28, 30, 37

Tail No: No.34 Mk I
  

Color and markings:  Dark Green overall
1/2 inch red band around nose,
2 inch light green band around maximum diameter

Body Construction:

-Mk I: Similar to the Mk II, with the exception of two side fuze pockets near the rear end of body, afforded by two adapters welded into the body and fitted with exploder containers which extend inward at a 45 degree angle to the axis of the bomb.

-Mk II:  The body consists of a hollow steel casting open at each end, with six strengthening beams welded inside the nose end.  The nose bush is screwed and welded into the nose , and a male base plate is screwed into the base.  Exploder containers are threaded into the nose bush and the base plate, and arte secured in place by locking screws.  The rear end of the body is shaped to receive the tail assembly.  The rear face of the body has two sets of four threaded holes for the wing bolts of the tail assembly, or the transit base.


Tail Construction: The tail assembly consists of a cylindrical strut supported by four fins from the tail cone, and an arming mechanism for the tail pistol.  The forward end of the arming spindle has a fork which engages another fork of the tail pistol.  The rear end is fitted with a four-bladed arming vane.  The arming vanes protrude beyond the cylindrical strut.
 
Suspension: The bomb body has three sets of tapped holes for the securing screws of a central suspension lug, and the fore and aft hoisting brackets.  The suspension lug is secured by four bolts at the center of gravity.
  

Explosive Components:
Exploders:  TNT and CE

Main Filling: 1,070lb Amatol 60/40 or 1,018lb of Amatex 51/40/9.  The filling is sealed nose and tail with an approved composition.


Remarks: The Anti-Disturbance Fuze No.845, formerly incorporated in the nose when the Tail Pistol No. 37 was used, is now obsolete.

Tail fins are usually painted red when time pistol is used.







Next Time:  Medium and High Capacity Bombs

Monday, 28 November 2016

British Explosive Ordnance - Introduction and Fragmentation Bombs







British Explosive Ordnance







Introduction




Note: All present-tense mentions (the British Bombs currently in service, etc) refer to the at-the-time current 1946 Technical Manual.



Designation and Classification of British Bombs

British bombs are designated by purpose, weight, and mark number.  British mark numbers, which are always written in Roman numerals, correspond roughly to the modification numbers used by the US Navy, while the British weight designation corresponds to the US Naval mark number.  Minor changes in marks of British bombs are indicated by various symbols, consisting of lower case letters, capital letters, or asterisks.


The classification according to purpose is generally indicated by the initials of the specific type.  Thus, there is a series of antisubmarine bombs designated "A.S.", a series of general purpose bombs designated "G.P.", semi armor-piercing bombs designated "S.A.P.", aircraft depth charges designated "D.C.", etc.  Occasionally, when no appropriate initials can be used, the complete name of the bomb type is employed in the designation, as "Smoke", "Practice", etc.

Therefore, in order to describe a British bomb completely, the use, weight class, and mark number must be given in that sequence; eg, GP 250lb Mk V; IB 80lb Mk IV; Smoke 500lb Mk I; SAP 500lb Mk IIC.

The following are the type classifications of British bombs and the initials used to indicate them:

Fragmentation Bombs ----- F
General Purpose Bombs ----- GP
Medium Capacity Bombs ----- MC
High Capacity Bombs ----- HC
Deep Penetration Bombs ----- DP
Semi Armor-Piercing Bombs ----- SAP
Armor-Piercing Bombs ----- AP
Antisubmarine Bombs ----- AS
Aircraft Depth Charges ----- DC
Buoyancy Bombs ----- B
Incendiary Bombs ----- IB
Smoke Bombs ----- Smoke
Chemical Bombs ----- LC
Practice Bombs ----- Practice
Infantry Training Bombs ----- IT
Target Identification Bombs ----- TI
Anti-Tank Bombs ----- AT


Construction of British Bombs

British bombs generally are highly streamlined, although the later designs, such as the MC bombs, are parallel sided, resembling the American GP bombs in external appearance.   GP and MC bombs are usually of cast, one-piece construction, although some MC bombs may be built up in welded sections of cast or forged steel.  SAP and AP bombs are always forged in one piece and heat-treated for greater strength.  The exteriors of these bombs are well machined.  HC bombs are of thin-walled, "boiler plate", construction.



Fillings of British Bombs

A great variety of main fillings are used by the British.  The most common, however, are the following: Amatol for GO, MC, and HC types; TNT for SAP; and "Shellite" for AP bombs.  RDX/TNT combinations are also commonly employed in MC and HC bombs.  Current fillings are 60/40 Amatol HC, and desensitized Pentolite or RDX/TNT for all others.


Suspension of British Bombs

British bombs are suspended by a single suspension lug attached to the bomb body by machine screws.  Later designs of British bombs, such as the MC series, are fitted with additional dual suspension lugs for carrying in American planes.  Crutches or sway bars are used with larger size bombs.


British Tail Assemblies

A unique type of tail assembly is regularly employed by the British, consisting of a sheet-steel cone with a cylindrical strut attached by means of four sheet-steel fins.  The unique feature is the fact that the arming vanes are an integral part of the tail assembly.  They are attached to the tail pistol by means of a reach rod with a fork on its lower extremity engaging a similar fork on the tail pistol.  A special short trail,. originally designed for use in American built planes, is sometimes used to permit a greater bomb load.  A third type of tail assembly, rarely used, is designed to be employed in conjunction with certain tail fuzes which have their own arming vanes.  The arming vanes on this tail assembly are omitted, and the tail cone is truncated to give clearance to the vanes on the fuze.

Tail units are attached to bombs up to 1,000 pounds by a spring clip assembly, and to bombs of 1,0000 pounds and over by means of bolts.  Since each individual bomb is provided with its own specific tail unit, the bomb designation and tail number, which are stencilled on one of the tail fins, serve as a ready means of identifying the bomb.  The word "Mark" is omitted from both the tail unit and the bomb designation.  For example, the tail unit, No. 2 Mk I, used on the GP 500lb Bomb Mk IV, should appear on the tail unit as "No. 2 . 1, GP 500lb IV".




Color Markings and Stencilling of British Bombs

The following list gives the color markings employed on loaded British bombs.


F ------  Dark green overall with red band forward of light green band on nose.


GP ------- Dark green overall with red nose band and light green body band.


MC ------ Dark green overall with red nose band and light green band on base of ogive.


HC ------ Dark green overall with red nose band and light green band on forward portion.


SAP ------ Dark green overall with a white band just forward of a red band on the nose.


AP ------ Dark green overall with nose painted light green to point of greatest diameter; white band between two red bands on nose

DP ------ Dark green overall with red band near nose


AS ------ Dark green overall with red nose band and light green band at base of ogive


DC ------ Dark green overall with red nose band and colored band indicating filling forward of the suspension lug.

B ------ Dark green overall with red nose band and green band on ogive.

IB ------ Either dull red overall or have red nose end.  Most small sizes have a bright red band between two black bands around the nose.  Large sizes have a bright red band on the body and another on the after body.

Smoke ------ Dark green overall with a red band either around the nose or the after part of the body.


LC ------ Grey overall with colored bands to indicate chemical filler
Black band - Tear Gas
Green band - Lung irritant
Yellow band - Vesicant

Practice ------ White overall with two green bands around the tail cone.
IT ------ Dark green overall with red and green bands on nose


TI -- Black overall with red band at base of ogive.  Color of band around nose plug indicates the color of the candles.  A red cross on the after part of the body indicates that explosive candles are used.

Flares and Photoflash ------ Black overall with a red band near nose.

Cluster projectiles ------ Painted an overall color according to the type of small bombs carried.


HE filled bombs were originally painted yellow by the British.  The change to dark green was made at about the same time that the United States change to olive drab.  Consequently, yellow-painted bombs may still be found.


Complete information, including weight, type, mark number, filling, date filled, filling station and lot number will be found stencilled on the outside of all British bombs.  Although the location of the various stencillings differs with different bombs, the following sketch will indicate the information to be found and its approximate location on the outside of the bomb body.






Fragmentation Bombs


Introduction

There are only two sizes of fragmentation bombs now in use by the British.  These are the 8 pound, and several different marks of 20 pound fragmentation bombs, including a modified US 20lb fragmentation bomb.

The 20lb F bomb is nose fuzed only, and is similar in construction to the 40lb GP bomb.  It may be fitted with a standard tail for purposes of stabilization, or either a standard parachute attachment, or a special small parachute for use with a 500lb Cluster Projectile No.17 Mk II may be used.  The parachute attachments are designed to reduce the bomb's terminal velocity and so insure detonation of the bomb on impact before ground penetration takes place.

Fragmentation bombs are generally painted dark green overall with a red band and a light green band around the nose end.

These fragmentation bombs are used principally against personnel.







F. 8lb Mk I (Obsolete), and Mk II (Service)


Overall length: 4.2 inches
Body length: 3.02 inches
Body diameter: 5 inches
Wall thickness: 0.125 inches
Total weight: 8 pounds (approximately)
Charge/Weight ratio: 22% (approximately)

Fuzing: Tail Fuze No. 880 or 881

Parachute No: Tray No. 12, Mk I, with parachute
Color and markings:  Dark green overall
1/4 inch red band around after part,
1/2 inch light green band around center of bomb


Body Construction: The bomb body consist of a pot-shaped, cast-steel cylinder which is open at the top,  A steel neck ring, having internal threads to receive the adapter, is welded to the open end of the body.  The parachute tray is secured to the adapter.  Extending through the adapter fuze, which is enclosed by a paper tube 2 inches in diameter, extending through the bomb body.

Parachute: The parachute is 12 inches in diameter and is encased in a cylindrical steel tray having a diameter slightly less than the maximum diameter of the bomb body.  A safety pin extends through the parachute container, and is secured by a spring clip.

Explosive Components:

Main Filling: 1 and 3/4 pounds (approx.) of TNT, or RDX/TNT 60/40;
1 and 1/2 pounds (approx.) of Amatol 50/50 or 60/40, or Pentolite/D? (When filled with explosives other than TNT, a 1/4 inch topping of TNT is added)

Remarks: The Mk I Bomb has a smaller filling hole than the Mk II.  The Mk I was never fitted or adopted for service use.










F. 20lb Stabilized Mks I and II (Obsolescent), Mk III (Service), and Mk IV (Obsolescent)



Overall length: 21.8 inches
Body length: 11.9 inches
Body diameter: 3.95 inches
Wall thickness: 0.35 inches
Tail length: 9 inches
Tail width: 3.83 inches
Total weight: 20 pounds (approximately, with pistol)
Charge/Weight ratio: 15%

Fuzing: Nose Pistol No. 29, 34, 88, or 45; Nose Fuze No. 873
Color and markings:  Dark green overall
1/2 inch red band around nose
1 inch light green band 4 inches from the nose

Body Construction: This bomb has a stream-lined, one-piece, cast-steel body, with the nose end open to take the exploder container.  The rear end is reduced to form a spigot for taking the tail assembly.  The boss on the spigot is tapped and threaded to receive the tail-securing rod.  The exploder container is cemented in position, and locked by a locking screw.

Tail Construction: A cylindrical strut is attached to the tail cone by four fines.  The tail is secured to the body by a tail rod screwed into a boss on the body spigot, and passing through a threaded adapter on the narrow end of the tail cone.  The locking nut and spring washer at both the outer and inner ends of the rod lock it in position.

Suspension:
-Mk I: Carried 12 in Small Bomb Containers, or on Light Series bomb carrier if fitted with a suspension lug.

-Mk II: Carried 12 in Small Bomb Containers, or on Light Series bomb carrier if fitted with suspension lug or band.

-Mk III: Suspension lug welded on bomb body at center of gravity for carrying on Light Series bomb carrier; can be carried 12 in Small Bomb Container.

Explosive Components:
Exploders: CE and TNT pellets. (CE only being used now)

 Main Filling: 3.3 pounds of TNT or RDX/TNT (When RDX/TNT is used, a 1/4 to 3/8 inch topping of TNT is used in the nose.

Remarks: The Small Bomb Container, 160lb, contains eight of these bombs.  The Small Bomb Container, 250lb, will hold 12 of these bombs.  These bombs are no longer being manufactured.  However, they may be encountered in the field.  They are being replaced by the 8lb fragmentation bomb.

In the Mk IV Bomb the exploder system was changed to use only CE pellets, and a special retarded tail was incorporated.









F. 20lb Parachute Mks I and II (Obsolescent), and Mk III (Service)

Same as previous entry except as follows:


Fuzing: Nose Pistol No.33

Color and markings:  Dark green overall
1/2 inch red band around body 1/2 inch from nose
1 inch light green band 4 inches from the nose
Tail Construction: The parachute tail unit consist of a tail tube with a cylindrical strut connected to its rear portion by four fins.  The parachute, which is housed in a fabric cylinder, is contained in a tail tube.  A loose-fitting metal cover in the after end of the tube is attached to the fabric cylinder.  The parachute cords are connected to a wire rope secured to an eyebolt which connects the tail adapter and the body.  The tail adapter is secured in the front end of the tail tube by four screws.  When dropped, the metal end cover in the tube is blown off by the air slip, and acts as a pilot parachute to pull the main parachute out of the tube.

 Explosive Components: Filling:
-Mk III: 3 pounds (approx.) RDX/TNT
-Mk I and II: 3.3 pounds TNT









F. 20lb For No.17 Mk II Cluster Only (Service)


Overall length: 14.5 inches
Body length: 11.9 inches
Body diameter: 3.9 inches
Wall thickness: 0.35 inches
Total weight: 20 pounds (approximately)
Charge/Weight ratio: 15%

Fuzing: Nose Fuze No. 873

Color and markings:  Dark green overall
1/2 inch red band around nose
1 inch light green band around body


Body Construction: This bomb has a stream-lined, one-piece, cast-steel body, with the nose end open to take the exploder container.  The rear end is reduced to form a spigot for taking the parachute attachment.  The exploder container is cemented and locked in position.  The No.873 Nose Fuze is locked in position by a multi-tab washer.

Tail Construction: No tail is used with this bomb, which is especially designed to be used only in the No. 17 Mk II Cluster.  It has a short parachute attachment, secured to the body spigot by a threaded stud.  The parachute tray houses an 8 inch diameter fabric parachute with six pairs of rigging lines; each pair terminating in a whipped eye.  These eyes pass through holes in the tray and are threaded onto a metal circlip(?), which is secured on the underside of the tray.  A lid over the parachute in the ? held in position by the fuze of the bomb behind it.  When the cluster opens, the air slip displaces the lid, which pulls the chute free of the tray.

Suspension: This bomb has no suspension lugs, as it is used only in the No. 17 Mk II Cluster.

Explosive Components: Two TNT, and two perforated CE pellets.

 Main Filling: 3.1 pounds (approx.) of TNT

Remarks: The bomb is issued only in clustered form, and, when clustered, the fuze has no safety pin fitted.  Hence, care should be exercised in dealing with any individual bombs which might break loose from a cluster in handling.









US 20lb Fragmentation Bomb, Modified

Overall length (fuzed): 16.2 inches
Body length: 3.64 inches
Body diameter: 11.3 inches
Wall thickness: 0.56 inches
Tail length: 4.9 inches
Tail width: 3.64 inches

Fuzing: US Nose Fuze AN-M 104, or AN-M 120

Tail No: No.14 Parachute Housing

Color and markings:  Olive drab body, yellow nose and tail


Body Construction: This bomb consists of a US 20lb Fragmentation Bomb, which has been altered by the attachment of a special British parachute housing.  The bomb consist of a cast-steel nose and tail sections threaded to a seamless steel inner tube.  Helically wrapped around this inner tube is a heavy, drawn-steel wire to provide effective fragmentation.  The nose ? sections are threaded internally; the form to receive the nose fuze, and the latter to receive the parachute housing.

Tail Construction: The British No. 14 Parachute Housing consist of a cast-aluminum tray containing a 12-inch diameter parachute.  The tray is closed by a loosely fitting metal lid to which the parachute is attached by a short loop of cord.  The shroud lines of the parachute are fitted through holes drilled around the bottom edge of the tray, and are secured by a metal ring passed through the loops of the lines.  Leading from the parachute is an arming line, spliced to the arming wire from the fuze.  Release of the parachute withdraws the arming wire from the fuze, allowing the fuze to arm after a few seconds delay.

Suspension: Although the bomb is provided with a single, U-shaped, steel eyebolt welded to the bomb body for individual suspension, these bombs will be carried by the RAF in Cluster Projectiles No. 23 Mk I and No.24 Mk I.  In these clusters the nose of one bomb bears against the parachute lid of the bone behind it, holding the lid in place until the cluster opens.  The air slip then removes the housing lid, which acts as a pilot parachute and pulls out the 12 inch diameter parachute by which the bomb is suspended.

Remarks: Because of the extreme sensitivity of the Fuze AN-M 104, an extra spring, located outside the fuze body beneath the pressure plate, is added when this fuze is employed in these bombs by the RAF.

  


Next Time:  General Purpose Bombs

Monday, 21 November 2016

French Explosive Ordnance - Mines and Traps






French Explosive Ordnance





Mines and Traps








60mm Model 1939 - Anti-Personnel Mine


Overall length: 8.25 inches
Supporting plate: 6.4 in x 4 in
Type of filling: Melinite
Weight of filling: 5 ounces
Total weight: 5.5 pounds


Description: The steel projector tube, of 60.3mm bore, is closed at its upper end by a cap with a rubber sealing washer, which is held in position by clips.  At the lower end, it is closed by a machined base plate driven into position and fixed by dowels into which a flash tube is screwed.

An igniter adapter is screwed onto the open end of the flash tube.  Located in the flash tube is a propelling charge, consisting of 0.8 grams of black powder.  Inside the projector tub, the pressed steel cap, to which is welded the fuze holder, is a push fit over the base plate.

The fuze holder is threaded externally to fit into the mortar bomb and internally to take the holder containing a detonator.  The bush containing a delay pellet is screwed into the fuze holder.  There is a small distance piece to prevent the detonator from being screwed down onto the delay pellet.  The projector tube and flash tube are fixed to a rectangular plate.  This plate is designed to fit over the hole, in which the lower part of the mine is placed, to insure that the mine remains vertical and also to prevent it from sinking if it is used with a pressure igniter.  A winged plug is provided to screw into the tail of the bomb to assist screwing it into the fuze assembly.


Operation: This mine is designed to throw a 60mm mortar bomb into the air so that it will explode at a height of between 1 foot, 7 inches, and 6 feet, 6 inches.  The flash from the cap in the igniter fires the propelling charge.  The gases produced from this charge expand into the space in the base of the projector tube and throw up the pressed-steel cap together with the mortar bomb screwed to it.  At the same time, the delay pellet is ignited and, after a delay of about 1/3 second, the detonator and the bomb are exploded.







Light Anti-Tank Mine


Overall length: 12.11 inches
Overall width: 8.11 inches
Overall height: 4.4 inches
Wall thickness: 0.5 inches
Type of filling: Picric Acid
Weight of filling: 6.09 ? (Note: No unit of measurement is given)
Total weight: 13.41 pounds
Igniter: Pressure type Models 1935 and 1936

Color and markings:
-Camouflage: Brown and Black
Markings on upper surface within fuze well: ASS, 10.39, M.F.

Description: The mine consists of a rectangular metal container loaded with picric acid.  A metal cover, which fits over the loaded container, rests on two pressure-type igniters or fuzes.  An aluminum safety ba? prevents functioning of the igniter until removed, presumable after setting the mine in the ground.

The base plate has drilling at each corner to receive the holding-down lugs.  The cover is corrugated and is strengthened internally by the two metal supports.  The mine lid is held loosely in position by the mine-cover chains which are attached at either end to the base of the mine.







Heavy Anti-Tank Mine
  

Overall length: 16.2 inches
Overall width: 9.85 inches
Overall height: 4.75 inches
Weight of filling: 3.25 pounds
Total weight: 27 pounds


Description: The mine consists of a rectangular pressed-steel base plate, to which is welded the explosive container, and a thin pressed-steel cover.  In the top of the explosive container is a single socket for the igniter, detonator, and primer.  The lid is hinged to the base plate along one side, while two wing nuts are provided on the opposite side to hold the lid shut.  The igniter is similar to that fitted in the French light A.T. mine.  Igniters of either type may therefore be fitted as follows:


Model 1935:
-Material of body and striker: Steel
Material of cap and detonator assembly: Brass
Diameter of shear pin: 0.36 inches

Model 1936:
-Material of body and striker: Aluminum
-Material of cap and detonator assembly: Aluminum
Diameter of shear pin: 0.28 inches

In arming the mine, the plug protecting the igniter socket is removed and the primer is placed in position; this latter consists of a small circular metal container with a central hole to receive the detonator.  The igniter, with detonator, is then screwed in place.


Operation: The igniter functions when a load on the mine crushes the cover and, descending onto the striker head, shears the igniter pin.  A strong steel spring then forces the striker onto the cap, thus firing the detonator, primer, and mine.  The igniter is normally supplied with a loose metal safety collar.  This collar is placed in position on the head of the igniter body during transportation to prevent any load falling on the striker head.




Next Time:  British Explosive Ordnance

Monday, 14 November 2016

French Explosive Ordnance - Bombs






French Explosive Ordnance





Bombs




Classes

French bombs may be divided into three classes.  The bombs in each class are named according to their weight, approximately in multiples of 10kg. and there follows a designation intended to differentiate several bombs of the weight.  H.E. service bombs are made of steel-hardened, forged, or drawn steel; welded sheet or cast steel.  The bomb fillings are generally as follows:

Hardened steel bombs ----- M Mn
Steel bombs ----- M Dn
Other bombs ----- D D



Fillings

The following fillings are used in French bombs:

M Mn - Trimonite (U.S.A.)
-70% melinite (picric acid)
-30% mononitionapthalene

M Dn or MFDN
-80% melinite
-20% dinitronapthalene

D D - Shellite (British)
-60% melinite
-40 dinitrophenol

Of these, "M Mn" is the most used filling for cast-steel anti-personnel bombs.  The remainder are normally filled with "M Dn", "D D" being confined to certain types which are now considered obsolete.


Flares

Flares are normally used in reconnaissance of targets or landing grounds.  They may be 10 or 30 kilograms in weight and should be used at altitudes between 1,500 and 5,000 feet.  The star burns for four or five minutes.  The smoke bomb produces, on impact, a cloud of smoke which lasts about a minute and indicates the direction of the wind.


Coloring of Bombs

1. Service Bombs
-H.E. bombs ---- Yellow
-H.E. bombs (old pattern) ---- Grey
-Flares ---- Red
-Incendiary 1kg (old pattern) ---- Blue body/Black tail
-Incendiary (new pattern) ---- Red body/Green tail
-Incendiary 10kg ---- Red body/Green tail
-Smoke ---- Black nose/Green body and tail

2. Miscellaneous Bombs
-Practice bombs ---- Yellow, blue band, or unpainted
-Instructional bombs ---- Grey or black/Blue band
-Ballast bombs ---- Grey or black/White band


Markings on French Bombs

Markings indicating manufacture are stamped on the nose of the bomb, either transversely near the nose fuze pocket or in a direction parallel to the axis of the bomb.

On mild or forged steel bombs they indicate the source of the steel, the establishments which have carried out the tempering and the manufacture, a consecutive number, the lot number, and year of manufacture.  The letter "M" shows that the bomb is of rolled steel.

On bombs of cast steel, markings indicate the foundry, the lot number, the year of manufacture, and the mark of the factory.

The nature of the explosive filling is indicated by letters 0.4 inch in height, stamped on the bomb at 0.4 inch from the nose fuze pocket.

The following markings are painted on the bombs.
In black, initials of the firm which carried out the filling, with the month and year of filling e.g. PCFD-7-22

Source and lot number of the explosive filling e.g. SF-514-20

Nature of filling
Lot number and year of filling e.g 4-22

In red, the inscription "F de Culot" on the same side as the other markings, in the case of bombs fuzed in the tail.  In addition, bombs of  100kg and over carry below all other markings a number indicating the exact weight of the bomb, to the nearest kilogram.





French Navy Bombs

Little information has been found on French Navy bombs.  Only the information in the following chart is available, except for the 125kg light case bomb, which is included in the bomb section.








10kg (P.A.) Anti-Personnel Type I and Type II


 Overall length: 21.5 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 3.54 inches
Wall thickness: 0.5 inches
Tail length: 9.3 inches
Tail width: 5.5 inches

Type of filling:
-70% Picric Acid
-30% Mononitronapthalene

Weight of filling: 2.5 pounds
Total weight: 21 pounds

Fuzing: Nose Only
-24/31 Type H, Model 1921 R.S.A.
-24/31 Model 1925 or Model 1928

Color and markings: Overall yellow
Stamped 0.4 in. from nose fuze pocket in letters 0.4 in. in height - nature of filling.


Description: The bomb casings are single-piece steel castings, internally threaded at the nose to accommodate the tapered steel fuze adaptor.  Type II is similar to Type I, with the following exceptions: No struts are fitted to the tail unit, and strengthening is effected by pressing the lateral and longitudinal corrugations in each tail vane.  In Type I, the tail unit is formed of four similar segments riveted together, fitted over the rear of the bomb, and secured by crimping the tail cone into an annular groove out in the bomb body.








10kg (P.) Anti-Personnel Type I and Type II

 Overall length: 21.5 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 3.5 inches
Wall thickness: 0.5 inches
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: Unknown

Fuzing: Nose Only
-24/31 Type H, Model 1921 R.S.A.
-24/31 Model 1925 or Model 1928

Color and markings: Overall yellow
Stamped 0.4 in. from nose fuze pocket in letters 0.5 in. in height - nature of filling.


Description
Type I: The bomb body consists of a converted 90mm artillery shell.  A sheet-metal extension fits over the upper end of the body and is secured to it by crimping within two annular grooves machined in the body.  The tail unit is riveted to the upper half of the extension.

Type II: This bomb is similar to Type I, with the following exceptions: No conical extension is fitted, but a tail cone formed of a single-piece casting is fitted over the upper end of the bomb and is secured to it by crimping within a single annular groove.










50kg (A.) and 50kg (G.A.M.Mn.) G.P. H.E.
  

(A)
 Overall length: 39 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 6.15 inches
Wall thickness: 0.69 inches
Tail length: 17 inches
Tail width: 7.85 inches
Type of filling: M.Dn
Weight of filling: 22 pounds
Total weight: 88 pounds

 (G.A.M.Mn)
 Overall length: 46.5 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 7.85 inches
Wall thickness: 0.125 inches
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: Unknown
Type of filling: M.Mn
Weight of filling: 63 pounds
Total weight: 112 pounds

Fuzing:
(A): Nose - Type H Model 1921; Tail: 3B15
(G.A.M.Mn): Tail: M. No.2

Color and markings: Overall yellow
Painted on bomb case - Type of filling and "F de Culot" if tail-fuzed only.


Description:
(A): The body of this bomb is a single-piece steel forging made from a rejected 155mm artillery shell.

(G.A.M.Mn): This bomb is made of sheet steel; it has either a longitudinal or a circumferential weld.








50kg (D.T. No.1, No.2, and No.3) G.P. H.E.

   
(No.1)
 Overall length: 46.5 inches
Body diameter: 8.25 inches
Wall thickness: 0.375 inches
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: Unknown
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Weight of filling: 44 pounds
Total weight: 123 pounds

 (No.2)
Overall length: 46.5 inches
Body diameter: 7.7 inches
Wall thickness: Unknown
Tail length: 21 inches
Tail width: 10.2 inches
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Weight of filling: 42 pounds
Total weight: 123 pounds

 (No.3)
Overall length: 46.5 inches
Body diameter: 7.86 inches
Wall thickness: Unknown
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: Unknown
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Weight of filling: 44 pounds
Total weight: 123 pounds

Fuzing:
No.1 and No.3: Tail only - 3B15

No.2: Nose - Type H Model 1921 R.S.A., Model 1925, or Model 1928.
Tail - Sch.R. Model 1938

Color and markings: Overall yellow
Painted on body - Type of filling, source, year of manufacture, etc.


Description: These bombs are single-piece forgings; No.1 made from converted 220mm artillery shells, No.3 from converted hydrogen cylinder; both made obsolete by the French.  The tail consists of four vanes fastened to teh tail cone, strengthened between the vanes by sheet metal struts.







100kg and 200kg G.P. H.E.
  

100kg
 Overall length: 56 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 10.8 inches
Wall thickness: 0.44 inches
Tail length: 18.9 inches
Tail width: 10.2 inches
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Total weight: 258 pounds

 200kg
Overall length: 62 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 14.5 inches
Wall thickness: 0.41 inches
Tail length: 27.25 inches
Tail width: 11.5 inches
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Total weight: 503 pounds

Fuzing:
Nose - A modified R.S.A. 30/45 Model 1930
Tail - 3B15 (100kg only) Sch. R. Model 1938

Color and markings: Overall yellow
Painted on body - Type of filling, source, etc. and "F de Culot" if tail-fuzed only.


Description: These bombs have a forged steel case.  The tail assembly consists of four vanes attached to the tail con and reinforced by struts made of strip steel.








500kg (Model 1930, No.1, and No.2) G.P. H.E.
   

Model 1930
 Overall length: 81 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 19.3 inches
Wall thickness: 0.56 inches
Tail length: 34.2 inches
Tail width: 27.2 inches
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Weight of filling: 600 pounds
Total weight: 1285 pounds

 No.1
Overall length: 83 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 21.4 inches
Wall thickness: 0.44 inches
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: Unknown
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Weight of filling: 662 pounds
Total weight: 1182 pounds

No.2
Overall length: 79 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 19.6 inches
Wall thickness: 0.625 inches
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: Unknown
Type of filling: M.Dn or D D
Weight of filling: 595 pounds
Total weight: 1148 pounds

Fuzing:
Nose - A modified R.S.A. Mod. 1930 (except 500kg Model 1930)

Tail - 3B15 Sch. R. 1938 (500kg Model 1930 only)

Color and markings: Overall yellow
Painted on body - Type of filling, source, etc.


Description:
Model 1930: Bomb case is made of a single-piece steel forging.

No.1: This bomb is made of three sheet-steel sections welded together, presumably circumferentially.

No.2: The bomb case is made of a single-piece steel forging.

The tail assembly of these bombs consists of a tail cone with four vanes attached.



  



125kg G.P. H.E. (Naval)
  

 Overall length (w/o fuze): 61.5 inches
Body length: 36 inches
Body diameter: 12.2 inches
Wall thickness: 0.25 inches
Tail length: 26.8 inches
Tail width: 12 inches
Type of filling: TNT
Weight of filling: Unknown
Total weight: 125 kilograms (approx.)

Fuzing:
Nose: Type A
Tail: No.8

Color and markings: Unknown


Description: This bomb is light cased.  The tail assembly is secured to the bomb body by four clamping bolts which are received by four lugs on the body.  The tail unit has corrugate stiffening plates for strengthening.









40kg Fragmentation Bomb
   

 Overall length: 35.75 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 6.25 inches
Wall thickness: Unknown
Tail length: 16.75 inches
Tail width: 7.75 inches
Type of filling: Unknown
Weight of filling: Unknown
Total weight: Unknown

Fuzing:
Nose: No.3
Tail: Unknown

Color and markings: Unknown


Description: This bomb is a converted artillery shell.  The tail unit is the cross-blade type, with the blade joined near the end of the bomb by a narrow strengthening band.








1kg Incendiaries Type A and Type B
   

 Type A
Overall length: 14.5 inches
Body length: 9 inches
Wall thickness: 0.35 inches
Tail length: 4.75 inches
Tail width: 2 inches
Type of filling: Thermite
Total weight: 1 kilogram

Type B
Overall length: 14.5 inches
Body length: Unknown
Wall thickness: 0.35 inches
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: 2 inches
Type of filling: Thermite
Total weight: 1 kilogram

Fuzing:
Nose only - Fuzes for 1kg Incendiaries

Color and markings:
Type A: Blue body and Black tail
Type B: Red or Blue body and Green or Black tail


Description:
The bomb bodies are cylindrical castings of magnesium alloy, with the nose internally threaded to take a nose fuze.  Toward the nose, the bomb casing is perforated by two small vents, plugged with wax.  The bombs differ in tail assemblies, with Type A consisting of three sheet-metal banes supported at the ends by a circular ting and Type B consisting of a cast-alloy tail cone and eight vanes.









10kg (Model 1927) Incendiary
   

Overall length: 22.1 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 3.54 inches
Wall thickness: Unknown
Tail length: 10.2 inches
Tail width: 5.5 inches
Type of filling: Thermite
Total weight: 1 kilogram

Fuzing:
Nose only - Fuzes for 1kg Incendiaries

Color and markings:
Type A: Blue body and Black tail
Type B: Red or Blue body and Green or Black tail


Description:
The bomb bodies are cylindrical castings of magnesium alloy, with the nose internally threaded to take a nose fuze.  Toward the nose, the bomb casing is perforated by two small vents, plugged with wax.  The bombs differ in tail assemblies, with Type A consisting of three sheet-metal banes supported at the ends by a circular ting and Type B consisting of a cast-alloy tail cone and eight vanes.









10kg Parachute Flares Old Type (A) and New Type (B)
  
  

 Type A
Overall length: Unknown (Book states Type A 10kg)
Body length: 45.3 inches
Body diameter: 4.4 inches
Wall thickness: Unknown
Tail length: Unknown
Tail width: Unknown
Type of filling: Star Composition
Weight of filling: 8 kilograms
Total weight: 13 kilograms

Fuzing:
Type A: Nose only - Time Fuze V.M.
Type B: Nose only - Time Fuze Model 1930

Color and markings:
Type A: Red overall
Type B: White overall; three grey stars painted near the head of the flare.


Description: These types of flares are very similar.  They come in weights of 10, 15, 30, and 50 kg.  The Type A is the older type and B is the newer.

Type A: The 10kg flare of this type has a body of sheet iron, tin plated.  When the fuze functions, it ignites the powder charge and this, in turn, ignites the flare composition.  At the same time the gas caused by the combustion of the powder creates sufficient pressure to eject the star and parachute through the tail of the flare, the cup of which is lightly attached to the body.

Type B: The newer type of flare is made of aluminum.  The tail cover is attached to the body by a lead strip running around the joint between the body and the tail.  The expulsion of the stars and parachute is accomplished in the same manner as in the Type A.  The head of the flare contains a ballast, as well as the powder charge which ignites and expels the contents of the flare.  The ignition of the large star is caused by the safety fuzes.  When the parachute opens, the six small stars hang around the large star.








Smoke Bomb
   

Overall length: 9.45 inches
Body length: Unknown
Body diameter: 2.75 inches
Tail length: 4.25 inches
Tail width: 3.15 inches
Type of filling: Titanium Tetrachloride
Bottle content: 100 cc

Fuzing: None

Color and markings: Green body and tail, Black nose.


Description: The casing is sheet aluminum, with the head pressed separately and soldered in several places to the body.  A glass container fits within the casing, protected from breakage by cork at the tail, felt washers along the side of the casing, and a collar supported on a helical spring at the nose.  A U-shaped safety pin holds the collar in position.  On release, the safety pin is pulled, freeing the bottle in the case.  On impact, the bottle moves forward against a spring onto four cutters in the nose of the body.




Next Time: French Mines and Traps